×

FOURTH NATIONAL CLIMATE ASSESSMENT

CREDITS

  • David Reidmiller
    Chair, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Benjamin DeAngelo
    Vice Chair, Department of Commerce
  • Farhan Akhtar
    Department of State
  • Daniel Barrie
    Department of Commerce
  • Virginia Burkett
    Department of the Interior
  • Jennifer Carroll
    National Science Foundation
  • Lia Cattaneo
    Department of Transportation (through December 2017)
  • Pierre Comizzoli
    Smithsonian Institution
  • Daniel Dodgen
    Department of Health and Human Services
  • Noel Gurwick
    U.S. Agency for International Development
  • Pat Jacobberger-Jellison
    National Aeronautics and Space Administration
  • Rawlings Miller
    Department of Transportation (May–August 2018)
  • Kurt Preston
    Department of Defense
  • Margaret Walsh
    Department of Agriculture
  • Tristram West
    Department of Energy
  • Darrell Winner
    Environmental Protection Agency
  • Virginia Burkett
    Acting Chair, Department of the Interior
  • Gerald Geernaert
    Vice Chair, Department of Energy
  • Michael Kuperberg
    Executive Director, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • John Balbus
    Department of Health and Human Services
  • Bill Breed
    U.S. Agency for International Development (through February 2018)
  • Pierre Comizzoli
    Smithsonian Institution
  • Wayne Higgins
    Department of Commerce
  • Scott Harper
    Department of Defense
  • William Hohenstein
    Department of Agriculture
  • Jack Kaye
    National Aeronautics and Space Administration
  • Dorothy Koch
    Department of Energy
  • Barbara McCann
    Department of Transportation
  • Andrew Miller
    Environmental Protection Agency
  • James Reilly
    Department of the Interior
  • Trigg Talley
    Department of State
  • Maria Uhle
    National Science Foundation
  • Michael Kuperberg
    U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • David Reidmiller
    U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Chloe Kontos
    Executive Director, National Science and Technology Council
  • Kimberly Miller
    Office of Management and Budget

    Chapter 1: Overview

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • David Reidmiller, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Chapter Lead
  • Alexa Jay, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Chapter Authors
  • Christopher W. Avery, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Daniel Barrie, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Apurva Dave, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Benjamin DeAngelo, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Matthew Dzaugis, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Michael Kolian, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Kristin Lewis, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Katie Reeves, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Darrell Winner, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Chapter 2: Our Changing Climate

    Federal Coordinating Lead Authors
  • David R. Easterling, NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
  • David W. Fahey, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
  • Chapter Lead
  • Katharine Hayhoe, Texas Tech University
  • Chapter Authors
  • Sarah Doherty, University of Washington
  • James P. Kossin, NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
  • William V. Sweet, NOAA National Ocean Service
  • Russell S. Vose, NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
  • Michael F. Wehner, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  • Donald J. Wuebbles, University of Illinois
  • Technical Contributors
  • Robert E. Kopp, Rutgers University
  • Kenneth E. Kunkel, North Carolina State University
  • John Nielsen-Gammon, Texas A&M University
  • Review Editor
  • Linda O. Mearns, National Center for Atmospheric Research
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • David J. Dokken, Senior Program Officer
  • David Reidmiller, Director
  • Chapter 3: Water

    Federal Coordinating Lead Authors
  • Thomas Johnson, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Peter Colohan, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Chapter Lead
  • Upmanu Lall, Columbia University
  • Chapter Authors
  • Amir AghaKouchak, University of California, Irvine
  • Sankar Arumugam, North Carolina State University
  • Casey Brown, University of Massachusetts
  • Gregory McCabe, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Roger Pulwarty, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Review Editor
  • Minxue He, California Department of Water Resources
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Kristin Lewis, Senior Scientist
  • Allyza Lustig, Program Coordinator
  • Chapter 4: Energy Supply, Delivery, and Demand

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • Craig D. Zamuda, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Policy
  • Chapter Lead
  • Craig D. Zamuda, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Policy
  • Chapter Authors
  • Daniel E. Bilello, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  • Guenter Conzelmann, Argonne National Laboratory
  • Ellen Mecray, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Ann Satsangi, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy
  • Vincent Tidwell, Sandia National Laboratories
  • Brian J. Walker, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
  • Review Editor
  • Sara C. Pryor, Cornell University
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Natalie Bennett, Adaptation and Assessment Analyst
  • Christopher W. Avery, Senior Manager
  • Chapter 5: Land Cover and Land-Use Change

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • Thomas Loveland, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Chapter Lead
  • Benjamin M. Sleeter, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Chapter Authors
  • James Wickham, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Grant Domke, U.S. Forest Service
  • Nate Herold, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Nathan Wood, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Technical Contributors
  • Tamara S. Wilson, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Jason Sherba, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Review Editor
  • Georgine Yorgey, Washington State University
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Susan Aragon-Long, Senior Scientist
  • Christopher W. Avery, Senior Manager
  • Chapter 6: Forests

    Federal Coordinating Lead Authors
  • James M. Vose, U.S. Forest Service, Southern Research Station
  • David L. Peterson, U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station
  • Chapter Leads
  • James M. Vose, U.S. Forest Service, Southern Research Station
  • David L. Peterson, U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station
  • Chapter Authors
  • Grant M. Domke, U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station
  • Christopher J. Fettig, U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station
  • Linda A. Joyce, U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station
  • Robert E. Keane, U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station
  • Charles H. Luce, U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station
  • Jeffrey P. Prestemon, U.S. Forest Service, Southern Research Station
  • Technical Contributors
  • Lawrence E. Band, University of Virginia
  • James S. Clark, Duke University
  • Nicolette E. Cooley, Northern Arizona University
  • Anthony D'Amato, University of Vermont
  • Jessica E. Halofsky, University of Washington
  • Review Editor
  • Gregg Marland, Appalachian State University
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Natalie Bennett, Adaptation and Assessment Analyst
  • Susan Aragon-Long, Senior Scientist
  • Chapter 7: Ecosystems, Ecosystem Services, and Biodiversity

    Federal Coordinating Lead Authors
  • Shawn Carter, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Jay Peterson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Chapter Leads
  • Douglas Lipton, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Madeleine A. Rubenstein, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Sarah R. Weiskopf, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Chapter Authors
  • Lisa Crozier, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Michael Fogarty, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Sarah Gaichas, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Kimberly J. W. Hyde, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Toni Lyn Morelli, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Jeffrey Morisette, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Invasive Species Council Secretariat
  • Hassan Moustahfid, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Roldan Muñoz, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Rajendra Poudel, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Michelle D. Staudinger, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Charles Stock, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Laura Thompson, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Robin Waples, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Jake F. Weltzin, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Review Editor
  • Gregg Marland, Appalachian State University
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Matthew Dzaugis, Program Coordinator
  • Allyza Lustig, Program Coordinator
  • Chapter 8: Coastal Effects

    Federal Coordinating Lead Authors
  • Jeffrey Payne, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • William V. Sweet, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Chapter Lead
  • Elizabeth Fleming, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
  • Chapter Authors
  • Michael Craghan, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • John Haines, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Juliette Finzi Hart, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Heidi Stiller, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Ariana Sutton-Grier, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Review Editor
  • Michael Kruk, ERT, Inc.
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Matthew Dzaugis, Program Coordinator
  • Christopher W. Avery, Senior Manager
  • Allyza Lustig, Program Coordinator
  • Fredric Lipschultz, Senior Scientist and Regional Coordinator
  • Chapter 9: Oceans and Marine Resources

    Federal Coordinating Lead Authors
  • Roger B. Griffis, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Elizabeth B. Jewett, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Chapter Lead
  • Andrew J. Pershing, Gulf of Maine Research Institute
  • Chapter Authors
  • C. Taylor Armstrong, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • John F. Bruno, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  • D. Shallin Busch, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Alan C. Haynie, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Samantha A. Siedlecki, University of Washington (now at University of Connecticut)
  • Desiree Tommasi, University of California, Santa Cruz
  • Technical Contributor
  • Vicky W. Y. Lam, University of British Columbia
  • Review Editor
  • Sarah R. Cooley, Ocean Conservancy
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Fredric Lipschultz, Senior Scientist and Regional Coordinator
  • Apurva Dave, International Coordinator and Senior Analyst
  • Chapter 10: Agriculture and Rural Communities

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • Carolyn Olson, U.S. Department of Agriculture
  • Chapter Leads
  • Prasanna Gowda, USDA Agricultural Research Service
  • Jean L. Steiner, USDA Agricultural Research Service
  • Chapter Authors
  • Tracey Farrigan, USDA Economic Research Service
  • Michael A. Grusak, USDA Agricultural Research Service
  • Mark Boggess, USDA Agricultural Research Service
  • Review Editor
  • Georgine Yorgey, Washington State University
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Susan Aragon-Long, Senior Scientist
  • Allyza Lustig, Program Coordinator
  • Chapter 11: Built Environment, Urban Systems, and Cities

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • Susan Julius, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Chapter Lead
  • Keely Maxwell, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Chapter Authors
  • Anne Grambsch, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Retired)
  • Ann Kosmal, U.S. General Services Administration
  • Libby Larson, National Aeronautics and Space Administration
  • Nancy Sonti, U.S. Forest Service
  • Technical Contributors
  • Julie Blue, Eastern Research Group, Inc.
  • Kevin Bush, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (through August 2017)
  • Review Editor
  • Jesse Keenan, Harvard University
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Natalie Bennett, Adaptation and Assessment Analyst
  • Fredric Lipschultz, Senior Scientist and Regional Coordinator
  • Chapter 12: Transportation

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • Michael Culp, U.S. Department of Transportation
  • Chapter Lead
  • Jennifer M. Jacobs, University of New Hampshire
  • Chapter Authors
  • Lia Cattaneo, Harvard University (formerly U.S. Department of Transportation)
  • Paul Chinowsky, University of Colorado Boulder
  • Anne Choate, ICF
  • Susanne DesRoches, New York City Mayor's Office of Recovery and Resiliency and Office of Sustainability
  • Scott Douglass, South Coast Engineers
  • Rawlings Miller, WSP (formerly U.S. Department of Transportation Volpe Center)
  • Review Editor
  • Jesse Keenan, Harvard University
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Allyza Lustig, Program Coordinator
  • Kristin Lewis, Senior Scientist
  • Chapter 13: Air Quality

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • Christopher G. Nolte, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Chapter Lead
  • Christopher G. Nolte, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Chapter Authors
  • Patrick D. Dolwick, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Neal Fann, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Larry W. Horowitz, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Vaishali Naik, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Robert W. Pinder, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Tanya L. Spero, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Darrell A. Winner, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Lewis H. Ziska, U.S. Department of Agriculture
  • Review Editor
  • David D'Onofrio, Atlanta Regional Commission
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Ashley Bieniek-Tobasco, Health Program Coordinator
  • Sarah Zerbonne, Adaptation and Decision Science Coordinator
  • Christopher W. Avery, Senior Manager
  • Chapter 14: Human Health

    Federal Coordinating Lead Authors
  • John M. Balbus, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
  • George Luber, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Chapter Lead
  • Kristie L. Ebi, University of Washington
  • Chapter Authors
  • Aparna Bole, University Hospitals Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital, Ohio
  • Allison Crimmins, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Gregory Glass, University of Florida
  • Shubhayu Saha, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Mark M. Shimamoto, American Geophysical Union
  • Juli Trtanj, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Jalonne L. White-Newsome, The Kresge Foundation
  • Technical Contributor
  • Stasia Widerynski, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Review Editor
  • David D'Onofrio, Atlanta Regional Commission
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Ashley Bieniek-Tobasco, Health Program Coordinator
  • Sarah Zerbonne, Adaptation and Decision Science Coordinator
  • Natalie Bennett, Adaptation and Assessment Analyst
  • Christopher W. Avery, Senior Manager
  • Chapter 15: Tribes and Indigenous Peoples

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • Rachael Novak, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs
  • Chapter Lead
  • Lesley Jantarasami, Oregon Department of Energy
  • Chapter Authors
  • Roberto Delgado, National Institutes of Health
  • Elizabeth Marino, Oregon State University-Cascades
  • Shannon McNeeley, North Central Climate Adaptation Science Center and Colorado State University
  • Chris Narducci, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
  • Julie Raymond-Yakoubian, Kawerak, Inc.
  • Loretta Singletary, University of Nevada, Reno
  • Kyle Powys Whyte, Michigan State University
  • Review Editor
  • Karen Cozzetto, Northern Arizona University
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Susan Aragon-Long, Senior Scientist
  • Allyza Lustig, Program Coordinator
  • Chapter 16: Climate Effects on U.S. International Interests

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • Meredith Muth, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Chapter Lead
  • Joel B. Smith, Abt Associates
  • Chapter Authors
  • Alice Alpert, U.S. Department of State
  • James L. Buizer, University of Arizona
  • Jonathan Cook, World Resources Institute (formerly U.S. Agency for International Development)
  • Apurva Dave, U.S. Global Change Research Program/ICF
  • John Furlow, International Research Institute for Climate and Society, Columbia University
  • Kurt Preston, U.S. Department of Defense
  • Peter Schultz, ICF
  • Lisa Vaughan, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Review Editor
  • Diana Liverman, University of Arizona
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Apurva Dave, International Coordinator and Senior Analyst
  • Chapter 17: Sector Interactions, Multiple Stressors, and Complex Systems

    Federal Coordinating Lead Authors
  • Leah Nichols, National Science Foundation
  • Robert Vallario, U.S. Department of Energy
  • Chapter Lead
  • Leon Clarke, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
  • Chapter Authors
  • Mohamad Hejazi, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
  • Jill Horing, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
  • Anthony C. Janetos, Boston University
  • Katharine Mach, Stanford University
  • Michael Mastrandrea, Carnegie Institution for Science
  • Marilee Orr, U.S. Department of Homeland Security
  • Benjamin L. Preston, Rand Corporation
  • Patrick Reed, Cornell University
  • Ronald D. Sands, U.S. Department of Agriculture
  • Dave D. White, Arizona State University
  • Review Editor
  • Kai Lee, Williams College (Emeritus) and the Packard Foundation (Retired)
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Kristin Lewis, Senior Scientist
  • Natalie Bennett, Adaptation and Assessment Analyst
  • Chapter 18: Northeast

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • Ellen L. Mecray, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Chapter Lead
  • Lesley-Ann L. Dupigny-Giroux, University of Vermont
  • Chapter Authors
  • Mary D. Lemcke-Stampone, University of New Hampshire
  • Glenn A. Hodgkins, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Erika E. Lentz, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Katherine E. Mills, Gulf of Maine Research Institute
  • Erin D. Lane, U.S. Department of Agriculture
  • Rawlings Miller, WSP (formerly U.S. Department of Transportation Volpe Center)
  • David Y. Hollinger, U.S. Department of Agriculture
  • William D. Solecki, City University of New York-Hunter College
  • Gregory A. Wellenius, Brown University
  • Perry E. Sheffield, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
  • Anthony B. MacDonald, Monmouth University
  • Christopher Caldwell, College of Menominee Nation
  • Technical Contributors
  • Zoe P. Johnson, U.S. Department of Defense, Naval Facilities Engineering Command (formerly NOAA Chesapeake Bay Office)
  • Amanda Babson, U.S. National Park Service
  • Elizabeth Pendleton, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Benjamin T. Gutierrez, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Joseph Salisbury, University of New Hampshire
  • Andrew Sven McCall Jr., University of Vermont
  • E. Robert Thieler, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Sara L. Zeigler, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Review Editor
  • Jayne F. Knott, University of New Hampshire
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Christopher W. Avery, Senior Manager
  • Matthew Dzaugis, Program Coordinator
  • Allyza Lustig, Program Coordinator
  • Chapter 19: Southeast

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • Adam Terando, U.S. Geological Survey, Southeast Climate Adaptation Science Center
  • Chapter Lead
  • Lynne Carter, Louisiana State University
  • Chapter Authors
  • Kirstin Dow, University of South Carolina
  • Kevin Hiers, Tall Timbers Research Station
  • Kenneth E. Kunkel, North Carolina State University
  • Aranzazu Lascurain, North Carolina State University
  • Doug Marcy, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Michael Osland, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Paul Schramm, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Technical Contributors
  • Vincent Brown, Louisiana State University
  • Barry Keim, Louisiana State University
  • Julie K. Maldonado, Livelihoods Knowledge Exchange Network
  • Colin Polsky, Florida Atlantic University
  • April Taylor, Chickasaw Nation
  • Review Editor
  • Alessandra Jerolleman, Jacksonville State University
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Allyza Lustig, Program Coordinator
  • Matthew Dzaugis, Program Coordinator
  • Natalie Bennett, Adaptation and Assessment Analyst
  • Chapter 20: U.S. Caribbean

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • William A. Gould, USDA Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry
  • Chapter Lead
  • Ernesto L. Diaz, Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, Coastal Zone Management Program
  • Chapter Authors
  • Nora L. Álvarez-Berríos, USDA Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry
  • Felix Aponte-González, Aponte, Aponte & Asociados
  • Wayne Archibald, Archibald Energy Group
  • Jared Heath Bowden, Department of Applied Ecology, North Carolina State University
  • Lisamarie Carrubba, NOAA Fisheries, Office of Protected Resources
  • Wanda Crespo, Estudios Técnicos
  • Stephen Joshua Fain, USDA Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry
  • Grizelle González, USDA Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry
  • Annmarie Goulbourne, Environmental Solutions Limited
  • Eric Harmsen, Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, University of Puerto Rico
  • Azad Henareh Khalyani, Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University
  • Eva Holupchinski, USDA Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry
  • James P. Kossin, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Amanda J. Leinberger, Center for Climate Adaptation Science and Solutions, University of Arizona
  • Vanessa I. Marrero-Santiago, Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, Coastal Zone Management Program
  • Odalys Martínez-Sánchez, NOAA National Weather Service
  • Kathleen McGinley, USDA Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry
  • Melissa Meléndez Oyola, University of New Hampshire
  • Pablo Méndez-Lázaro, University of Puerto Rico
  • Julio Morrell, University of Puerto Rico
  • Isabel K. Parés-Ramos, USDA Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry
  • Roger Pulwarty, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • William V. Sweet, NOAA National Ocean Service
  • Adam Terando, U.S. Geological Survey, Southeast Climate Adaptation Science Center
  • Sigfredo Torres-González, U.S. Geological Survey (Retired)
  • Technical Contributors
  • Mariano Argüelles, Puerto Rico Department of Agriculture
  • Gabriela Bernal-Vega, University of Puerto Rico
  • Roberto Moyano, Estudios Técnicos Inc.
  • Pedro Nieves, USVI Coastal Zone Management
  • Aurelio Mercado-Irizarry, University of Puerto Rico
  • Dominique Davíd-Chavez, Colorado State University
  • Rey Rodríguez, Puerto Rico Department of Agriculture
  • Review Editor
  • Jess K. Zimmerman, University of Puerto Rico
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Allyza Lustig, Program Coordinator
  • Apurva Dave, International Coordinator and Senior Analyst
  • Christopher W. Avery, Senior Manager
  • Chapter 21: Midwest

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • Chris Swanston, USDA Forest Service
  • Chapter Lead
  • Jim Angel, Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois
  • Chapter Authors
  • Barbara Mayes Boustead, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Kathryn C. Conlon, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Kimberly R. Hall, The Nature Conservancy
  • Jenna L. Jorns, University of Michigan, Great Lakes Integrated Sciences and Assessments
  • Kenneth E. Kunkel, North Carolina State University
  • Maria Carmen Lemos, University of Michigan, Great Lakes Integrated Sciences and Assessments
  • Brent Lofgren, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Todd A. Ontl, USDA Forest Service, Northern Forests Climate Hub
  • John Posey, East West Gateway Council of Governments
  • Kim Stone, Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission (through January 2018)
  • Eugene Takle, Iowa State University
  • Dennis Todey, USDA, Midwest Climate Hub
  • Technical Contributors
  • Katherine Browne, University of Michigan
  • Melonee Montano, Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission
  • Hannah Panci, Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission
  • Jason Vargo, University of Wisconsin
  • Madeline R. Magee, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • Review Editor
  • Thomas Bonnot, University of Missouri
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Kristin Lewis, Senior Scientist
  • Allyza Lustig, Program Coordinator
  • Katie Reeves, Engagement and Communications Lead
  • Chapter 22: Northern Great Plains

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • Doug Kluck, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Chapter Lead
  • Richard T. Conant, Colorado State University
  • Chapter Authors
  • Mark Anderson, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Andrew Badger, University of Colorado
  • Barbara Mayes Boustead, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Justin Derner, U.S. Department of Agriculture
  • Laura Farris, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Michael Hayes, University of Nebraska
  • Ben Livneh, University of Colorado
  • Shannon McNeeley, North Central Climate Adaptation Science Center and Colorado State University
  • Dannele Peck, U.S. Department of Agriculture
  • Martha Shulski, University of Nebraska
  • Valerie Small, University of Arizona
  • Review Editor
  • Kirsten de Beurs, University of Oklahoma
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Allyza Lustig, Program Coordinator
  • Kristin Lewis, Senior Scientist
  • Chapter 23: Southern Great Plains

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • Bill Bartush, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
  • Chapter Lead
  • Kevin Kloesel, University of Oklahoma
  • Chapter Authors
  • Jay Banner, University of Texas at Austin
  • David Brown, USDA-ARS Grazinglands Research Laboratory
  • Jay Lemery, University of Colorado
  • Xiaomao Lin, Kansas State University
  • Cindy Loeffler, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department
  • Gary McManus, Oklahoma Climatological Survey
  • Esther Mullens, DOI South Central Climate Adaptation Science Center
  • John Nielsen-Gammon, Texas A&M University
  • Mark Shafer, NOAA-RISA Southern Climate Impacts Planning Program
  • Cecilia Sorensen, University of Colorado
  • Sid Sperry, Oklahoma Association of Electric Cooperatives
  • Daniel Wildcat, Haskell Indian Nations University
  • Jadwiga Ziolkowska, University of Oklahoma
  • Technical Contributor
  • Katharine Hayhoe, Texas Tech University
  • Review Editor
  • Ellu Nasser, Adaptation International
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Susan Aragon-Long, Senior Scientist
  • Christopher W. Avery, Senior Manager
  • Chapter 24: Northwest

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • Charles Luce, USDA Forest Service
  • Chapter Lead
  • Christine May, Silvestrum Climate Associates
  • Chapter Authors
  • Joe Casola, Climate Impacts Group, University of Washington
  • Michael Chang, Makah Tribe
  • Jennifer Cuhaciyan, Bureau of Reclamation
  • Meghan Dalton, Oregon State University
  • Scott Lowe, Boise State University
  • Gary Morishima, Quinault Indian Nation
  • Philip Mote, Oregon State University
  • Alexander (Sascha) Petersen, Adaptation International
  • Gabrielle Roesch-McNally, USDA Forest Service
  • Emily York, Oregon Health Authority
  • Review Editor
  • Beatrice Van Horne, USDA Forest Service, Northwest Climate Hub
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Natalie Bennett, Adaptation and Assessment Analyst
  • Christopher W. Avery, Senior Manager
  • Susan Aragon-Long, Senior Scientist
  • Chapter 25: Southwest

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • Patrick Gonzalez, U.S. National Park Service
  • Chapter Lead
  • Gregg M. Garfin, University of Arizona
  • Chapter Authors
  • David D. Breshears, University of Arizona
  • Keely M. Brooks, Southern Nevada Water Authority
  • Heidi E. Brown, University of Arizona
  • Emile H. Elias, U.S. Department of Agriculture
  • Amrith Gunasekara, California Department of Food and Agriculture
  • Nancy Huntly, Utah State University
  • Julie K. Maldonado, Livelihoods Knowledge Exchange Network
  • Nathan J. Mantua, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Helene G. Margolis, University of California, Davis
  • Skyli McAfee, The Nature Conservancy (through 2017)
  • Beth Rose Middleton, University of California, Davis
  • Bradley H. Udall, Colorado State University
  • Technical Contributors
  • Mary E. Black, University of Arizona
  • Shallin Busch, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Brandon Goshi, Metropolitan Water District of Southern California
  • Review Editor
  • Cristina Bradatan, Texas Tech University
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Fredric Lipschultz, Senior Scientist and Regional Coordinator
  • Christopher W. Avery, Senior Manager
  • Chapter 26: Alaska

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • Stephen T. Gray, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Chapter Lead
  • Carl T. Markon, U.S. Geological Survey (Retired)
  • Chapter Authors
  • Matthew Berman, University of Alaska, Anchorage
  • Laura Eerkes-Medrano, University of Victoria
  • Thomas Hennessy, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Henry P. Huntington, Huntington Consulting
  • Jeremy Littell, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Molly McCammon, Alaska Ocean Observing System
  • Richard Thoman, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Sarah Trainor, University of Alaska Fairbanks
  • Technical Contributors
  • Todd Brinkman, University of Alaska Fairbanks
  • Patricia Cochran, Alaska Native Science Commission
  • Jeff Hetrick, Alutiiq Pride Shellfish Hatchery
  • Nathan Kettle, University of Alaska Fairbanks
  • Robert Rabin, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Jacquelyn (Jaci) Overbeck, Alaska Department of Natural Resources
  • Bruce Richmond, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Ann Gibbs, U.S. Geological Survey
  • David K. Swanson, National Park Service
  • Todd Attwood, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Tony Fischbach, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Torre Jorgenson, Arctic Long Term Ecological Research
  • Neal Pastick, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Ryan Toohey, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Shad O’Neel, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Eran Hood, University of Alaska Southeast
  • Anthony Arendt, University of Washington
  • David Hill, Oregon State University
  • Lyman Thorsteinson, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Franz Mueter, University of Alaska Fairbanks
  • Jeremy Mathis, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Jessica N. Cross, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Jennifer Schmidt, University of Alaska Anchorage
  • David Driscoll, University of Virginia
  • Don Lemmen, Natural Resources Canada
  • Philip Loring, University of Saskatoon
  • Benjamin Preston, RAND Corporation
  • Stefan Tangen, University of Alaska Fairbanks
  • John Pearce, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Darcy Dugan, Alaska Ocean Observing System
  • Anne Hollowed, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Review Editor
  • Victoria Herrmann, The Arctic Institute
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Fredric Lipschultz, Senior Scientist and Regional Coordinator
  • Susan Aragon-Long, Senior Scientist
  • Chapter 27: Hawai‘i and U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • David Helweg, DOI Pacific Islands Climate Adaptation Science Center
  • Chapter Lead
  • Victoria Keener, East-West Center
  • Chapter Authors
  • Susan Asam, ICF
  • Seema Balwani, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Maxine Burkett, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa
  • Charles Fletcher, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa
  • Thomas Giambelluca, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa
  • Zena Grecni, East-West Center
  • Malia Nobrega-Olivera, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa
  • Jeffrey Polovina, NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
  • Gordon Tribble, USGS Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center
  • Technical Contributors
  • Malia Akutagawa, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Hawaiʻinuiākea School of Hawaiian Knowledge, Kamakakūokalani Center for Hawaiian Studies, William S. Richardson School of Law, Ka Huli Ao Center for Excellence in Native Hawaiian Law
  • Rosie Alegado, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Department of Oceanography, UH Sea Grant
  • Tiffany Anderson, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Geology and Geophysics
  • Patrick Barnard, U.S. Geological Survey–Santa Cruz
  • Rusty Brainard, NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
  • Laura Brewington, East-West Center, Pacific RISA
  • Jeff Burgett, Pacific Islands Climate Change Cooperative
  • Rashed Chowdhury, NOAA Pacific ENSO Applications Climate Center
  • Makena Coffman, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Urban and Regional Planning
  • Chris Conger, Sea Engineering, Inc.
  • Kitty Courtney, Tetra Tech, Inc.
  • Stanton Enomoto, Pacific Islands Climate Change Cooperative
  • Patricia Fifita, University of Hawai‘i, Pacific Islands Climate Change Cooperative
  • Lucas Fortini, USGS Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center
  • Abby Frazier, USDA Forest Service
  • Kathleen Stearns Friday, USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry
  • Neal Fujii, State of Hawai‘i Commission on Water Resource Management
  • Ruth Gates, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology
  • Christian Giardina, USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry
  • Scott Glenn, State of Hawai‘i Department of Health, Office of Environmental Quality Control
  • Matt Gonser, University of Hawai‘i Sea Grant
  • Jamie Gove, NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
  • Robbie Greene, CNMI Bureau of Environmental and Coastal Quality
  • Shellie Habel, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology
  • Justin Hospital, NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
  • Darcy Hu, National Park Service
  • Jim Jacobi, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Krista Jaspers, East-West Center, Pacific RISA
  • Todd Jones, NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
  • Charles Ka‘ai‘ai, Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council
  • Lauren Kapono, NOAA Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument
  • Hiʻilei Kawelo, Paepae O Heʻeia
  • Benton Keali‘i Pang, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
  • Karl Kim, University of Hawai‘i, National Disaster Preparedness Training Center
  • Jeremy Kimura, State of Hawai‘i Commission on Water Resource Management
  • Romina King, University of Guam and Pacific Islands Climate Adaptation Science Center
  • Randy Kosaki, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Michael Kruk, ERT, Inc.
  • Mark Lander, University of Guam, Water and Environmental Research Institute
  • Leah Laramee, State of Hawaiʻi Department of Land and Natural Resources
  • Noelani Lee, Ka Honua Momona
  • Sam Lemmo, State of Hawai‘i Department of Land and Natural Resources, Interagency Climate Adaptation Committee
  • Rhonda Loh, Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park
  • Richard MacKenzie, USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry
  • John Marra, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Xavier Matsutaro, Republic of Palau, Office of Climate Change
  • Marie McKenzie, Pacific Islands Climate Change Cooperative
  • Mark Merrifield, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa
  • Wendy Miles, Pacific Islands Climate Change Cooperative
  • Lenore Ohye, State of Hawai‘i Commission on Water Resource Management
  • Kirsten Oleson, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa
  • Tom Oliver, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research
  • Tara Owens, University of Hawai‘i Sea Grant
  • Jessica Podoski, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers—Fort Shafter
  • Dan Polhemus, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
  • Kalani Quiocho, NOAA Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument
  • Robert Richmond, University of Hawaiʻi, Kewalo Marine Lab
  • Joby Rohrer, O‘ahu Army Natural Resources
  • Fatima Sauafea-Le‘au, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration—American Sāmoa
  • Afsheen Siddiqi, State of Hawaiʻi Department of Land and Natural Resources
  • Irene Sprecher, State of Hawaiʻi, Department of Land and Natural Resources
  • Joshua Stanbro, City and County of Honolulu Office of Climate Change, Sustainability and Resiliency
  • Mark Stege, The Nature Conservancy—Majuro
  • Curt Storlazzi, U.S. Geological Survey–Santa Cruz
  • William V. Sweet, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Kelley Tagarino, University of Hawai‘i Sea Grant
  • Jean Tanimoto, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Bill Thomas, NOAA Office for Coastal Management
  • Phil Thompson, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Oceanography
  • Mililani Trask, Indigenous Consultants LLC
  • Barry Usagawa, Honolulu Board of Water Supply
  • Kees van der Geest, United Nations University, Institute for Environment and Human Security
  • Adam Vorsino, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
  • Richard Wallsgrove, Blue Planet Foundation
  • Matt Widlansky, University of Hawai‘i, Sea Level Center
  • Phoebe Woodworth-Jefcoats, NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
  • Stephanie Yelenik, USGS Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center
  • Review Editor
  • Jo-Ann Leong, Hawai‘i Institute of Marine Biology
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Allyza Lustig, Program Coordinator
  • Fredric Lipschultz, Senior Scientist and Regional Coordinator
  • Chapter 28: Reducing Risks Through Adaptation Actions

    Federal Coordinating Lead Authors
  • Jeffrey Arnold, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
  • Roger Pulwarty, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Chapter Lead
  • Robert Lempert, RAND Corporation
  • Chapter Authors
  • Kate Gordon, Paulson Institute
  • Katherine Greig, Wharton Risk Management and Decision Processes Center at University of Pennsylvania (formerly New York City Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency)
  • Cat Hawkins Hoffman, National Park Service
  • Dale Sands, Village of Deer Park, Illinois
  • Caitlin Werrell, The Center for Climate and Security
  • Technical Contributors
  • Lauren Kendrick, RAND Corporation
  • Pat Mulroy, Brookings Institution
  • Costa Samaras, Carnegie Mellon University
  • Bruce Stein, National Wildlife Federation
  • Tom Watson, The Center for Climate and Security
  • Jessica Wentz, Columbia University
  • Review Editor
  • Mary Ann Lazarus, Cameron MacAllister Group
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • Sarah Zerbonne, Adaptation and Decision Science Coordinator
  • Fredric Lipschultz, Senior Scientist and Regional Coordinator
  • Chapter 29: Reducing Risks Through Emissions Mitigation

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • Jeremy Martinich, U.S Environmental Protection Agency
  • Chapter Lead
  • Jeremy Martinich, U.S Environmental Protection Agency
  • Chapter Authors
  • Benjamin DeAngelo, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Delavane Diaz, Electric Power Research Institute
  • Brenda Ekwurzel, Union of Concerned Scientists
  • Guido Franco, California Energy Commission
  • Carla Frisch, U.S. Department of Energy
  • James McFarland, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Brian O'Neill, University of Denver (National Center for Atmospheric Research through June 2018)
  • Review Editor
  • Andrew Light, George Mason University
  • USGCRP Coordinators
  • David Reidmiller, Director
  • Christopher W. Avery, Senior Manager
  • Appendix 1: Report Development Process

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • David Reidmiller, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Lead Author
  • Christopher W. Avery, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Contributing Authors
  • Therese (Tess) S. Carter, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Katie Reeves, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Kristin Lewis, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Appendix 2: Information in the Fourth National Climate Assessment

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • David Reidmiller, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Lead Author
  • Kristin Lewis, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Contributing Authors
  • Christopher W. Avery, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Appendix 3: Data Tools and Scenarios Products

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • David Reidmiller, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Lead Author
  • Christopher W. Avery, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Contributing Authors
  • Michael Kolian, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Kenneth E. Kunkel, North Carolina State University
  • David Herring, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Reid Sherman, U.S. Global Change Research Program/Straughan Environmental
  • William V. Sweet, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Kathryn Tipton, U.S. Global Change Research Program/ICF
  • Christopher Weaver, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Appendix 4: Looking Abroad: How Other Nations Approach a National Climate Assessment

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • David Reidmiller, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Lead Author
  • Katherine Weingartner, U.S. Global Change Research Program/ICF (through September 2017)
  • Contributing Authors
  • Apurva Dave, U.S. Global Change Research Program/ICF
  • Appendix 5: Frequently Asked Questions

    Federal Coordinating Lead Author
  • David Reidmiller, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Lead Author
  • Matthew Dzaugis, U.S. Global Change Research Program/ICF
  • Contributing Authors
  • Christopher W. Avery, U.S. Global Change Research Program/ICF
  • Allison Crimmins, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • LuAnn Dahlman, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • David R. Easterling, NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
  • Rachel Gaal, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Emily Greenhalgh, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • David Herring, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Kenneth E. Kunkel, North Carolina State University
  • Rebecca Lindsey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Thomas K. Maycock, North Carolina State University
  • Roberto Molar, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Brooke C. Stewart, North Carolina State University
  • Russell S. Vose, NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
  • Technical Contributors
  • C. Taylor Armstrong, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Edward Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, University of Washington
  • James Bradbury, Georgetown Climate Center
  • Delavane Diaz, Electric Power Research Institute
  • Joshua Graff-Zivin, University of California, San Diego
  • Jessica Halofsky, University of Washington
  • Lesley Jantarasami, Oregon Department of Energy
  • Shannon LaDeau, Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies
  • Elizabeth Marino, Oregon State University
  • Shaima Nasiri, U.S. Department of Energy
  • Matthew Neidell, Columbia University
  • Rachel Novak, U.S. Department of the Interior
  • Rick Ostfeld, Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies
  • David Pierce, Scripps Institute of Oceanography
  • Catherine Pollack, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • William V. Sweet, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Carina Wyborn, University of Montana
  • Laurie Yung, University of Montana-Missoula
  • Lewis Ziska, U.S. Department of Agriculture
  • David Reidmiller
    Director
  • Christopher W. Avery
    Senior Manager
  • Bradley Akamine
    Chief Digital Information Officer
  • Reuben Aniekwu
    Global Change Information System Intern
  • Susan Aragon-Long
    Senior Scientist
  • Natalie Bennett
    Adaptation and Assessment Analyst
  • Ashley Bieniek-Tobasco
    Health Program Coordinator
  • Mathia Biggs
    Office Coordinator
  • Therese (Tess) S. Carter
    Program Coordinator (until June 2017)
  • Apurva Dave
    International Coordinator and Senior Analyst
  • David J. Dokken
    Senior Program Officer
  • Matthew Dzaugis
    Program Coordinator
  • Amrutha Elamparuthy
    Data Manager
  • Anthony Flowe
    Engagement and Communications Associate
  • Alexa Jay
    Science Writer
  • Kristin Lewis
    Senior Scientist
  • Fredric Lipschultz
    Senior Scientist and Regional Coordinator
  • Allyza Lustig
    Program Coordinator
  • Vincent O’Leary
    Assessment Intern
  • Katie Reeves
    Engagement and Communications Lead
  • Reid Sherman
    Global Change Information System Lead
  • Mark Shimamoto
    Program Coordinator (until August 2017)
  • Kathryn Tipton
    Software Engineer
  • Katherine Weingartner
    Program Assistant (until September 2017)
  • Sarah Zerbonne
    Adaptation and Decision Science Coordinator
  • David R. Easterling
    NCA Technical Support Unit Director, NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
  • Kenneth E. Kunkel
    Lead Scientist, North Carolina State University
  • Sara W. Veasey
    Creative Director, NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
  • Brooke C. Stewart
    Managing Editor and Lead Science Editor, NC State University
  • Sarah M. Champion
    Data Architect and Lead Information Quality Analyst, NC State University
  • Katharine M. Johnson
    Web Developer and GIS Specialist, ERT, Inc.
  • James C. Biard
    Software Engineer, NC State University
  • Jessicca Griffin
    Visual Communications Specialist and NCA4 Lead Graphic Designer, NC State University
  • Angel Li
    Web Developer, NC State University
  • Thomas K. Maycock
    Science Editor, NC State University
  • Laura E. Stevens
    Research Scientist, NC State University
  • Liqiang Sun
    Research Scientist, NC State University
  • Andrew Thrasher
    Software Engineer, NC State University
  • Andrea McCarrick
    Editorial Assistant, NC State University
  • Tiffany Means
    Editorial Assistant, NC State University
  • Andrew Buddenberg
    Software Engineer, NC State University (until October 2017)
  • Liz Love-Brotak
    Graphic Designer, NOAA NCEI
  • Deborah Misch
    Graphic Designer, TeleSolv Consulting
  • Deborah B. Riddle
    Graphic Designer, NOAA NCEI
  • Mara Sprain
    NCEI Librarian, LAC Group
  • Barbara Ambrose
    Graphic Designer, Mississippi State University, Northern Gulf Institute
  • Andrew Ballinger
    Research Scientist, NC State University
  • Jennifer Fulford
    Editorial Assistant, TeleSolv Consulting
  • Kristy Thomas
    Metadata Specialist, ERT, Inc.
  • Terence R. Thompson
    Climate Data Analyst, LMI
  • Caroline Wright
    GIS Intern, NC State University
  • Samantha Heitsch
    Technical Writer, ICF
    UNC Asheville's National Environmental Modeling and Analysis Center (NEMAC)
  • John Frimmel
    Principal Software Developer
  • Ian Johnson
    Geospatial and Science Communications Associate
  • Karin Rogers
    Director of Operations / Research Scientist

Department of Commerce / National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

  • Cover: Howe Ridge fire in Montana's Glacier National Park on August 12, 2018, National Park Service.
  • About This Report: Image, NASA Earth Observatory images by Joshua Stevens and Jesse Allen, using Suomi NPP OMPS data provided courtesy of Colin Seftor (SSAI) and VIIRS data from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership.'
  • Guide To This Report: Image, © Orbon Alija/E+/Getty Images'
  • Chapter 1: | Image, Howe Ridge fire in Montana's Glacier National Park on August 12, 2018. National Park Service.
  • Chapter 2: An atmospheric river pours moisture into the western United States in February 2017 | Image, NASA Earth Observatory images by Jesse Allen and Joshua Stevens, using VIIRS data from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership and IMERG data provided courtesy of the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Science Team’s Precipitation Processing System (PPS).
  • Chapter 3: Levee repair along the San Joaquin River in California | Image, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Sacramento District
  • Chapter 4: Linemen working to restore power in Puerto Rico after Hurricane Maria in 2017 | Image, © Jeff Miller/Western Area Power Administration/Flickr under CC BY 2.0. Adaptation: cropped top and bottom to conform to the size needed for publication.
  • Chapter 5: Agricultural fields near the Ririe Reservoir in Bonneville, Idaho | Image, © Sam Beebe/Flickr under CC BY 2.0.Adaptation: cropped top and bottom to conform to the size needed for publication.
  • Chapter 6: California's multiyear drought killed millions of trees in low-elevation forests. | Image, Nathan Stephenson, U.S. Geological Survey.
  • Chapter 7: Bear catching salmon in Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska | Image, Lisa Hupp/U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
  • Chapter 8: Natural 'green barriers' help protect this Florida coastline and infrastructure from severe storms and floods. | Image, NOAA
  • Chapter 9: Coral reefs in the U.S. Virgin Islands | Image, Courtesy of NOAA
  • Chapter 10: Autumn in Tyringham, a small town in rural western Massachusetts | Image, © DenisTangneyJr/E+/Getty Images
  • Chapter 11: Cleveland, Ohio | Image, © Erik Drost/Flickr under CC BY 2.0. Adaptation: cropped top and bottom to conform to the size needed for publication.
  • Chapter 12: Roads, barges, and trains criss-cross in St. Louis, Missouri | Image, © Cathy Morrison/Missouri Department of Transportation under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0. Adaptation: cropped top and bottom to conform to the size needed for publication.
  • Chapter 13: Carr Fire, Shasta County, California, August 2018 | Image, Sgt. Lani O. Pascual/U.S. Army National Guard
  • Chapter 14: Algal bloom in Lake Erie in the summer of 2015 | Image, NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory.
  • Chapter 15: Wind River Indian Reservation students collect seeds for a land restoration project. | Image, U.S. Department of the Interior / Bureau of Land Management Wyoming
  • Chapter 16: Container ship bringing goods to port | Image, © wissanu01/iStock/Getty Images.
  • Chapter 17: Landslide blocking a road in California | Image, © gece33/E+/Getty Images
  • Chapter 18: Bartram Bridge in Pennsylvania | Image, © Thomas James Caldwell/Flickr under CC BY-SA 2.0. Adaptation: cropped top and bottom to conform to the size needed for publication.
  • Chapter 19: Red mangrove in Titusville, Florida | Image, © Katja Schulz/Flickr under CC BY 2.0. Adaptation: cropped top and bottom to conform to the size needed for publication.
  • Chapter 20: San Juan, Puerto Rico | Image, © stevereidlphoto/iStock/Getty Images
  • Chapter 21: Carson, Wisconsin | Image, William Garrett/Flickr under CC BY 2.0. Cropped top and bottom to conform to size needed for publication.
  • Chapter 22: Cameron, Montana | Image, Paul Cross/U.S. Geological Survey.
  • Chapter 23: Whooping cranes forage for food at the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge in Texas | Image, Jon Noll/U.S. Department of Agriculture.
  • Chapter 24: Sawtooth National Forest, Idaho | Image, Mark Lisk / USDA Forest Service.
  • Chapter 25: Low water levels in Lake Mead | Image, © flickr.com/Alan Levine under CC BY-NC 2.0. Adaptation: cropped top and bottom to conform to the size needed for publication.
  • Chapter 26: Anchorage, Alaska | Image, © Rocky Grimes/istock/Getty Images
  • Chapter 27: Coastal view of Honolulu, Hawai'i | Image, NOAA Teacher at Sea Program, NOAA Ship Hi‘ialakai
  • Chapter 28: Seawall surrounding Kivalina, Alaska | Image, © ShoreZone, under CC BY 3.0. Adaptation: cropped top and bottom to conform to the size needed for publication.
  • Chapter 29: Jasper, New York | Image, © John Getchel/Flickr under CC BY-NC 2.0. Adaptation: cropped top and bottom to conform to the size needed for publication.
  • Appendix 1: GOES-16 Imagery of Earth | Image, NOAA/NASA.
  • Appendix 2: GOES-16 Imagery of Earth | Image, NOAA/NASA.
  • Appendix 3: GOES-16 Imagery of Earth | Image, NOAA/NASA.
  • Appendix 4: GOES-16 Imagery of Earth | Image, NOAA/NASA.
  • Appendix 5: GOES-16 Imagery of Earth | Image, NOAA/NASA.
  • Search: A USFWS biologist performs a raven survey, USFWS-Pacific Region
  • Downloads: Same as cover and Chapter 1: Overview.
  • Credits: USGCRP All Author Meeting

Downloads page icons

Figure 7.5 icons