Federal Coordinating Lead Author:
David Reidmiller, U.S. Global Change Research Program
Lead Author:
Matthew Dzaugis, U.S. Global Change Research Program/ICF
Contributing Authors:
Christopher W. Avery, U.S. Global Change Research Program/ICF
Allison Crimmins, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
LuAnn Dahlman, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
David R. Easterling, NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
Rachel Gaal, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Emily Greenhalgh, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
David Herring, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Kenneth E. Kunkel, North Carolina State University
Rebecca Lindsey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Thomas K. Maycock, North Carolina State University
Roberto Molar, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Brooke C. Stewart, North Carolina State University
Russell S. Vose, NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
Technical Contributors:
C. Taylor Armstrong, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Edward Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, University of Washington
James Bradbury, Georgetown Climate Center
Delavane Diaz, Electric Power Research Institute
Joshua Graff-Zivin, University of California, San Diego
Jessica Halofsky, University of Washington
Lesley Jantarasami, Oregon Department of Energy
Shannon LaDeau, Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies
Elizabeth Marino, Oregon State University
Shaima Nasiri, U.S. Department of Energy
Matthew Neidell, Columbia University
Rachel Novak, U.S. Department of the Interior
Rick Ostfeld, Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies
David Pierce, Scripps Institute of Oceanography
Catherine Pollack, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
William V. Sweet, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Carina Wyborn, University of Montana
Laurie Yung, University of Montana-Missoula
Lewis Ziska, U.S. Department of Agriculture
USGCRP Coordinators:

Frequently Asked Questions

REFERENCES

  • Adhvaryu, A., N. Kala, and A. Nyshadham, 2014: The Light and the Heat: Productivity Co-benefits of Energy-Saving Technology. NBER Working Paper No. 24314. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, 63 pp. doi:10.3386/w24314.
  • Barbero, R., J. T. Abatzoglou, N. K. Larkin, C. A. Kolden, and B. Stocks, 2015: Climate change presents increased potential for very large fires in the contiguous United States. International Journal of Wildland Fire, doi:10.1071/WF15083.
  • Beard, C. B., R. J. Eisen, C. M. Barker, J. F. Garofalo, M. Hahn, M. Hayden, A. J. Monaghan, N. H. Ogden, and P. J. Schramm, 2016: Ch. 5: Vector-borne diseases . The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 129–156. doi:10.7930/J0765C7V.
  • Bopp, L., L. Resplandy, J. C. Orr, S. C. Doney, J. P. Dunne, M. Gehlen, P. Halloran, C. Heinze, T. Ilyina, R. Séférian, J. Tjiputra, and M. Vichi, 2013: Multiple stressors of ocean ecosystems in the 21st century: Projections with CMIP5 models. Biogeosciences, 10 (10), 6225–6245. doi:10.5194/bg-10-6225-2013.
  • Burrows, M. T., D. S. Schoeman, L. B. Buckley, P. Moore, E. S. Poloczanska, K. M. Brander, C. Brown, J. F. Bruno, C. M. Duarte, B. S. Halpern, J. Holding, C. V. Kappel, W. Kiessling, M. I. O'Connor, J. M. Pandolfi, C. Parmesan, F. B. Schwing, W. J. Sydeman, and A. J. Richardson, 2011: The pace of shifting climate in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Science, 334, 652–655. doi:10.1126/science.1210288.
  • DeAngelo, B., J. Edmonds, D. W. Fahey, and B. M. Sanderson, 2017: Perspectives on Climate Change Mitigation. Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 393–410. doi:10.7930/J0M32SZG.
  • Deschênes, O., and M. Greenstone, 2011: Climate change, mortality, and adaptation: Evidence from annual fluctuations in weather in the US. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 3 (4), 152–185. doi:10.1257/app.3.4.152.
  • Diaz, D., and F. Moore, 2017: Quantifying the economic risks of climate change. Nature Climate Change, 7, 774–782. doi:10.1038/nclimate3411.
  • Easterling, D. R., J. R. Arnold, T. Knutson, K. E. Kunkel, A. N. LeGrande, L. R. Leung, R. S. Vose, D. E. Waliser, and M. F. Wehner, 2017: Precipitation Change in the United States. Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 207–230. doi:10.7930/J0H993CC.
  • EPA, 2016: Climate Change Indicators in the United States, 2016. 4th edition. EPA 430-R-16-004. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., 96 pp. URL.
  • EPA, 2016: Climate Change Indicators: Wildfires. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC. URL.
  • EPA, 2017: Climate Change Indicators: Atmospheric Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC. URL.
  • Fahey, D. W., S. Doherty, K. A. Hibbard, A. Romanou, and P. C. Taylor, 2017: Physical Drivers of Climate Change. Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 73–113. doi:10.7930/J0513WCR.
  • Franco, G., and A. H. Sanstad, 2008: Climate change and electricity demand in California. Climatic Change, 87 (Suppl. 1), 139–151. doi:10.1007/s10584-007-9364-y.
  • G. Myhre, D. Shindell, F.-M. Bréon, W. Collins, J. Fuglestvedt, J. Huang, D. Koch, J.-F. Lamarque, D. Lee, B. Mendoza, T. Nakajima, A. Robock, G. Stephens, T. Takemura, and H. Zhang, 2013: Anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Stocker, T. F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, and P. M. Midgley, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 659–740. URL.
  • Graff Zivin, J., and M. Neidell, 2014: Temperature and the allocation of time: Implications for climate change. Journal of Labor Economics, 32 (1), 1–26. doi:10.1086/671766.
  • Hawkins, E., and R. Sutton, 2009: The potential to narrow uncertainty in regional climate predictions. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 90 (8), 1095–1107. doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2607.1.
  • Hayhoe, K., J. Edmonds, R. E. Kopp, A. N. LeGrande, B. M. Sanderson, M. F. Wehner, and D. J. Wuebbles, 2017: Climate Models, Scenarios, and Projections. Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 133–160. doi:10.7930/J0WH2N54.
  • Hsiang, S. M., and A. S. Jina, 2014: The Causal Effect of Environmental Catastrophe on Long-Run Economic Growth: Evidence from 6,700 Cyclones. NBER Working Paper No. 20352. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, 68 pp. doi:10.3386/w20352.
  • Jewett, L., and A. Romanou, 2017: Ocean Acidification and Other Ocean Changes. Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 364–392. doi:10.7930/J0QV3JQB.
  • Jolly, W. M., M. A. Cochrane, P. H. Freeborn, Z. A. Holden, T. J. Brown, G. J. Williamson, and D. M. J. S. Bowman, 2015: Climate-induced variations in global wildfire danger from 1979 to 2013. Nature Communications, 6, 7537. doi:10.1038/ncomms8537.
  • Knutson, T. R., J. J. Sirutis, G. A. Vecchi, S. Garner, M. Zhao, H.-S. Kim, M. Bender, R. E. Tuleya, I. M. Held, and G. Villarini, 2013: Dynamical downscaling projections of twenty-first-century Atlantic hurricane activity: CMIP3 and CMIP5 model-based scenarios. Journal of Climate, 27 (17), 6591–6617. doi:10.1175/jcli-d-12-00539.1.
  • Knutson, T. R., R. Zhang, and L. W. Horowitz, 2016: Prospects for a prolonged slowdown in global warming in the early 21st century. Nature Communcations, 7, 13676. doi:10.1038/ncomms13676.
  • Knutson, T., J. P. Kossin, C. Mears, J. Perlwitz, and M. F. Wehner, 2017: Detection and Attribution of Climate Change. Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 114–132. doi:10.7930/J01834ND.
  • Kossin, J. P., T. Hall, T. Knutson, K. E. Kunkel, R. J. Trapp, D. E. Waliser, and M. F. Wehner, 2017: Extreme Storms. Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 257–276. doi:10.7930/J07S7KXX.
  • Lam, V. W. Y., W. W. L. Cheung, G. Reygondeau, and U. R. Sumaila, 2016: Projected change in global fisheries revenues under climate change. Scientific Reports, 6, Art. 32607. doi:10.1038/srep32607.
  • Littell, J. S., D. McKenzie, D. L. Peterson, and A. L. Westerling, 2009: Climate and wildfire area burned in western U.S. ecoprovinces, 1916-2003. Ecological Applications, 19 (4), 1003–1021. doi:10.1890/07-1183.1.
  • Mann, M. E., Z. Zhang, M. K. Hughes, R. S. Bradley, S. K. Miller, S. Rutherford, and F. Ni, 2008: Proxy-based reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperature variations over the past two millennia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105 (36), 13252–13257. doi:10.1073/pnas.0805721105.
  • Masson-Delmotte, V., M. Schulz, A. Abe-Ouchi, J. Beer, A. Ganopolski, J. F. González Rouco, E. Jansen, K. Lambeck, J. Luterbacher, T. Naish, T. Osborn, B. Otto-Bliesner, T. Quinn, R. Ramesh, M. Rojas, X. Shao, and A. Timmermann, 2013: Information from paleoclimate archives. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Stocker, T. F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, and P. M. Midgley, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 383–464. URL.
  • McKenzie, D., and J. S. Littell, 2017: Climate change and the eco-hydrology of fire: Will area burned increase in a warming western USA? Ecological Applications, 27 (1), 26–36. doi:10.1002/eap.1420.
  • Mohan, J. E., L. H. Ziska, W. H. Schlesinger, R. B. Thomas, R. C. Sicher, K. George, and J. S. Clark, 2006: Biomass and toxicity responses of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) to elevated atmospheric CO2. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103 (24), 9086–9089. doi:10.1073/pnas.0602392103.
  • NAS, 2015: Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 154 pp. doi:10.17226/18805.
  • NAS, 2015: Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 260 pp. doi:10.17226/18988.
  • NASA, 2016: Weekly Animation of Arctic Sea Ice Age with Graph of Ice Age by Area: 1984-2016. NASA Scientific Visualization Studio, ,  accessed 12 February 2018. URL.
  • National Academies of Sciences Engineering and Medicine, 2017: Valuing Climate Damages: Updating Estimation of the Social Cost of Carbon Dioxide. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, doi:10.17226/24651.
  • Ogden, N. H., M. Radojević, X. Wu, V. R. Duvvuri, P. A. Leighton, and J. Wu, 2014: Estimated effects of projected climate change on the basic reproductive number of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis. Environmental Health Perspectives, 122, 631–638. doi:10.1289/ehp.1307799.
  • Ostfeld, R. S., and J. L. Brunner, 2015: Climate change and Ixodes tick-borne diseases of humans. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 370 (1665), 20140051. doi:10.1098/rstb.2014.0051.
  • Pederson, G. T., D. B. Fagre, S. T. Gray, and L. J. Graumlich, 2004: Decadal-scale climate drivers for glacial dynamics in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. Geophysical Research Letters, 31 (12), L12203. doi:10.1029/2004GL019770.
  • Pederson, G. T., J. L. Betancourt, and G. J. McCabe, 2013: Regional patterns and proximal causes of the recent snowpack decline in the Rocky Mountains, U.S. Geophysical Research Letters, 40 (9), 1811–1816. doi:10.1002/grl.50424.
  • Pederson, G. T., L. J. Graumlich, D. B. Fagre, T. Kipfer, and C. C. Muhlfeld, 2010: A century of climate and ecosystem change in Western Montana: What do temperature trends portend? Climatic Change, 98 (1–2), 133–154. doi:10.1007/s10584-009-9642-y.
  • Pederson, G. T., S. T. Gray, C. A. Woodhouse, J. L. Betancourt, D. B. Fagre, J. S. Littell, E. Watson, B. H. Luckman, and L. J. Graumlich, 2011: The unusual nature of recent snowpack declines in the North American cordillera. Science, 333 (6040), 332–335. doi:10.1126/science.1201570.
  • Pederson, G. T., S. T. Gray, T. Ault, W. Marsh, D. B. Fagre, A. G. Bunn, C. A. Woodhouse, and L. J. Graumlich, 2011: Climatic controls on the snowmelt hydrology of the northern Rocky Mountains. Journal of Climate, 24 (6), 1666–1687. doi:10.1175/2010jcli3729.1.
  • Perlwitz, J., T. Knutson, J. P. Kossin, and A. N. LeGrande, 2017: Large-Scale Circulation and Climate Variability. Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 161–184. doi:10.7930/J0RV0KVQ.
  • Peterson, T. C., W. M. Connolley, and J. Fleck, 2008: The myth of the 1970s global cooling scientific consensus. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 89 (9), 1325–1338. doi:10.1175/2008bams2370.1.
  • Prestemon, J. P., U. Shankar, A. Xiu, K. Talgo, D. Yang, E. Dixon, D. McKenzie, and K. L. Abt, 2016: Projecting wildfire area burned in the south-eastern United States, 2011–60. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 25 (7), 715–729. doi:10.1071/WF15124.
  • Rose, S. K., D. B. Diaz, and G. J. Blanford, 2017: Understanding the social cost of carbon: A model diagnostic and inter-comparison study. Climate Change Economics, 08 (02), 1750009. doi:10.1142/s2010007817500099.
  • Sanderson, B. M., B. C. O'Neill, and C. Tebaldi, 2016: What would it take to achieve the Paris temperature targets? Geophysical Research Letters, 43 (13), 7133–7142. doi:10.1002/2016GL069563.
  • Schlenker, W., and M. J. Roberts, 2009: Nonlinear temperature effects indicate severe damages to U.S. crop yields under climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (37), 15594–15598. doi:10.1073/pnas.0906865106.
  • Shepherd, J., K. Caldeira, P. Cox, J. Haigh, D. Keith, B. Launder, G. Mace, G. MacKerron, J. Pyle, S. Rayner, C. Redgwell, and A. Watson, 2009: Geoengineering the Climate: Science, Governance and Uncertainty. Report 10/09. The Royal Society, London, UK, 82 pp. URL.
  • Stroeve, J., and D. Notz, 2015: Insights on past and future sea-ice evolution from combining observations and models. Global and Planetary Change, 135, 119–132. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2015.10.011.
  • Sweet, W. V., R. E. Kopp, C. P. Weaver, J. Obeysekera, R. M. Horton, E. R. Thieler, and C. Zervas, 2017: Global and Regional Sea Level Rise Scenarios for the United States. NOAA Tech. Rep. NOS CO-OPS 083. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Silver Spring, MD, 75 pp. URL.
  • Sweet, W. V., R. Horton, R. E. Kopp, A. N. LeGrande, and A. Romanou, 2017: Sea Level Rise. Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 333–363. doi:10.7930/J0VM49F2.
  • Taub, D. R., 2010: Effects of rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide on plants. Nature Education Knowledge, 3 (10), 21. URL.
  • Taylor, P. C., W. Maslowski, J. Perlwitz, and D. J. Wuebbles, 2017: Arctic Changes and their Effects on Alaska and the Rest of the United States. Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 303–332. doi:10.7930/J00863GK.
  • Trenberth, K. E., 2015: Has there been a hiatus? Science, 349 (6249), 691–692. doi:10.1126/science.aac9225.
  • USGCRP, 2017: Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 470 pp. doi:10.7930/J0J964J6.
  • Vose, R. S., D. Arndt, V. F. Banzon, D. R. Easterling, B. Gleason, B. Huang, E. Kearns, J. H. Lawrimore, M. J. Menne, T. C. Peterson, R. W. Reynolds, T. M. Smith, C. N. Williams, and D. L. Wuertz, 2012: NOAA's Merged Land-Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 93, 1677–1685. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00241.1.
  • Walsh, J., D. Wuebbles, K. Hayhoe, J. Kossin, K. Kunkel, G. Stephens, P. Thorne, R. Vose, M. Wehner, J. Willis, D. Anderson, V. Kharin, T. Knutson, F. Landerer, T. Lenton, J. Kennedy, and R. Somerville, 2014: Appendix 4: Frequently Asked Questions. Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment. Melillo, J. M., Terese (T.C.) Richmond, and G. W. Yohe, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 790–820. doi:10.7930/J0G15XS3.
  • Wehner, M. F., J. R. Arnold, T. Knutson, K. E. Kunkel, and A. N. LeGrande, 2017: Droughts, Floods, and Wildfires. Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 231–256. doi:10.7930/J0CJ8BNN.
  • Westerling, A. L., 2016: Increasing western US forest wildfire activity: Sensitivity to changes in the timing of spring. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 371, 20150178. doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0178.
  • Williams, A. P., R. Seager, J. T. Abatzoglou, B. I. Cook, J. E. Smerdon, and E. R. Cook, 2015: Contribution of anthropogenic warming to California drought during 2012–2014. Geophysical Research Letters, 42 (16), 6819–6828. doi:10.1002/2015GL064924.
  • Wouters, B., J. L. Bamber, M. R. van den Broeke, J. T. M. Lenaerts, and I. Sasgen, 2013: Limits in detecting acceleration of ice sheet mass loss due to climate variability. Nature Geoscience, 6 (8), 613–616. doi:10.1038/ngeo1874.
  • Wuebbles, D. J., D. R. Easterling, K. Hayhoe, T. Knutson, R. E. Kopp, J. P. Kossin, K. E. Kunkel, A. N. LeGrande, C. Mears, W. V. Sweet, P. C. Taylor, R. S. Vose, and M. F. Wehner, 2017: Our Globally Changing Climate. Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 35–72. doi:10.7930/J08S4N35.
  • Yang, H., G. Lohmann, W. Wei, M. Dima, M. Ionita, and J. Liu, 2016: Intensification and poleward shift of subtropical western boundary currents in a warming climate. Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, 121 (7), 4928–4945. doi:10.1002/2015JC011513.
  • Ziska, L. H., D. R. Gealy, M. B. Tomecek, A. K. Jackson, and H. L. Black, 2012: Recent and projected increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration can enhance gene flow between wild and genetically altered rice (Oryza sativa). PLOS ONE, 7 (5), e37522. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037522.
  • Ziska, L. H., J. S. Pettis, J. Edwards, J. E. Hancock, M. B. Tomecek, A. Clark, J. S. Dukes, I. Loladze, and H. W. Polley, 2016: Rising atmospheric CO2 is reducing the protein concentration of a floral pollen source essential for North American bees. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 283 (1828) doi:10.1098/rspb.2016.0414.
  • Ziska, L., A. Crimmins, A. Auclair, S. DeGrasse, J. F. Garofalo, A. S. Khan, I. Loladze, A. A. Pérez de León, A. Showler, J. Thurston, and I. Walls, 2016: Ch. 7: Food safety, nutrition, and distribution. The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 189–216. doi:10.7930/J0ZP4417.

See Full Chapter & References