Federal Coordinating Lead Author:
David Reidmiller, U.S. Global Change Research Program
Lead Author:
Katherine Weingartner, U.S. Global Change Research Program/ICF (through September 2017)
Contributing Authors:
Apurva Dave, U.S. Global Change Research Program/ICF

Looking Abroad: How Other Nations Approach a National Climate Assessment


The Republic of Singapore’s National Climate Change Studies are voluntary reports, commissioned by the government and produced by a mixed team of national and international partners. Singapore has undertaken two studies, the first of which was completed in 2015 and the second of which is currently underway and will include a vulnerability analysis.

Assessment Mandate and Objectives

The National Environment Agency of Singapore (NEA) commissioned the current National Climate Change Study in recognition of the island nation’s increasing vulnerability to climate change. The purpose is to assess the current and projected impacts from climate change, focusing on variables of greatest importance to the country (temperature, precipitation, and sea level), and to assess the vulnerability of various sectors to a changing climate. The results of the study will feed into the next stage of Singapore’s national adaptation planning efforts.

Assessment Process

The NEA leads the development of the study, which is divided into two phases. Phase 1, which was published in 2015, provided long-term climate projections, while Phase 2, currently under development, will assess the vulnerability of Singapore’s population, environment, and infrastructure to a changing climate. The work on Phase 1 was performed jointly by experts from the Centre for Climate Research Singapore and the Met Office Hadley Centre in the United Kingdom, with contributions from partners at the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation and the United Kingdom’s National Oceanography Centre–Liverpool. The focus of the Phase 1 study was to produce high-resolution regional climate and sea level projections that extend to 2100. To ensure that outcomes from the study would be of use to decision-makers, stakeholder engagement was integrated early on in the process, with representatives from a range of national agencies taking part. In particular, engagement activities involved stakeholders’ focusing on six thematic clusters: coastal protection; water resources and drainage; public health; network infrastructure; building, structure, and town infrastructure; and biodiversity and greenery.

Assessment Content Structure

The Phase 1 report of Singapore’s Second National Climate Change Study is made up of 10 primary chapters, each focusing on a specific element of the modeling process that generated the high-resolution projections to be used in the vulnerability assessment. The report also includes detailed technical appendices and supplementary information.

International Dimensions

Phase 1 of the current study was completed in close partnership with the United Kingdom and Australia. Additionally, the foundation for its scientific assessment stemmed from work conducted by the IPCC. The completed study will not explicitly consider international effects.

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