Federal Coordinating Lead Authors:
James M. Vose, U.S. Forest Service, Southern Research Station
David L. Peterson, U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station
Chapter Leads:
James M. Vose, U.S. Forest Service, Southern Research Station
David L. Peterson, U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station
Chapter Authors:
Grant M. Domke, U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station
Christopher J. Fettig, U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station
Linda A. Joyce, U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station
Robert E. Keane, U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station
Charles H. Luce, U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station
Jeffrey P. Prestemon, U.S. Forest Service, Southern Research Station
Review Editor:
Gregg Marland, Appalachian State University
Technical Contributors:
Lawrence E. Band, University of Virginia
James S. Clark, Duke University
Nicolette E. Cooley, Northern Arizona University
Anthony D'Amato, University of Vermont
Jessica E. Halofsky, University of Washington
USGCRP Coordinators:
Natalie Bennett, Adaptation and Assessment Analyst
Susan Aragon-Long, Senior Scientist

Forests

REFERENCES

  • Abate, R. S., and E. A. Kronk Warner, 2013: Commonality among unique indigenous communities: An introduction to climate change and its impacts on Indigenous Peoples. Tulane Environmental Law Journal, 26 (2), 179–195. URL.
  • Abatzoglou, J. T., and A. P. Williams, 2016: Impact of anthropogenic climate change on wildfire across western US forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113 (42), 11770–11775. doi:10.1073/pnas.1607171113.
  • Abatzoglou, J. T., and C. A. Kolden, 2013: Relationships between climate and macroscale area burned in the western United States. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 22 (7), 1003–1020. doi:10.1071/WF13019.
  • Abt, K. L., D. T. Butry, J. P. Prestemon, and S. Scranton, 2015: Effect of fire prevention programs on accidental and incendiary wildfires on tribal lands in the United States. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 24 (6), 749–762. doi:10.1071/WF14168.
  • Adams, H. D., C. H. Luce, D. D. Breshears, C. D. Allen, M. Weiler, V. C. Hale, A. M. S. Smith, and T. E. Huxman, 2012: Ecohydrological consequences of drought- and infestation- triggered tree die-off: Insights and hypotheses. Ecohydrology, 5 (2), 145–159. doi:10.1002/eco.233.
  • Adaptation Partners, 2018: Climate Change Adaptation Library for the Western United States [web tool]. Adaptation Partners, Seattle, WA. URL.
  • Anderegg, W. R. L., C. Schwalm, F. Biondi, J. J. Camarero, G. Koch, M. Litvak, K. Ogle, J. D. Shaw, E. Shevliakova, A. P. Williams, A. Wolf, E. Ziaco, and S. Pacala, 2015: Pervasive drought legacies in forest ecosystems and their implications for carbon cycle models. Science, 349 (6247), 528–532. doi:10.1126/science.aab1833.
  • Argerich, A., S. L. Johnson, S. D. Sebestyen, C. C. Rhoades, E. Greathouse, J. D. Knoepp, M. B. Adams, G. E. Likens, J. L. Campbell, W. H. McDowell, F. N. Scatena, and G. G. Ice, 2013: Trends in stream nitrogen concentrations for forested reference catchments across the USA. Environmental Research Letters, 8 (1), 014039. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/014039.
  • Asner, G. P., P. G. Brodrick, C. B. Anderson, N. Vaughn, D. E. Knapp, and R. E. Martin, 2016: Progressive forest canopy water loss during the 2012–2015 California drought. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113 (2), E249–E255. doi:10.1073/pnas.1523397113.
  • Ayres, M. P., J. A. Hicke, B. K. Kerns, D. McKenzie, J. S. Littell, L. E. Band, C. H. Luce, A. S. Weed, and C. L. Raymond, 2014: Disturbance regimes and stressors. Climate Change and United States Forests. Peterson, D. L., J. M. Vose, and T. Patel-Weynand, Eds., Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 55–92. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7515-2_4.
  • Balch, J. K., B. A. Bradley, J. T. Abatzoglou, R. C. Nagy, E. J. Fusco, and A. L. Mahood, 2017: Human-started wildfires expand the fire niche across the United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114 (11), 2946–2951. doi:10.1073/pnas.1617394114.
  • Barbero, R., J. T. Abatzoglou, N. K. Larkin, C. A. Kolden, and B. Stocks, 2015: Climate change presents increased potential for very large fires in the contiguous United States. International Journal of Wildland Fire, doi:10.1071/WF15083.
  • Bearup, L. A., R. M. Maxwell, D. W. Clow, and J. E. McCray, 2014: Hydrological effects of forest transpiration loss in bark beetle-impacted watersheds. Nature Climate Change, 4 (6), 481–486. doi:10.1038/nclimate2198.
  • Bell, D. M., J. B. Bradford, and W. K. Lauenroth, 2014: Mountain landscapes offer few opportunities for high-elevation tree species migration. Global Change Biology, 20 (5), 1441–1451. doi:10.1111/gcb.12504.
  • Bentz, B. J., J. Régnière, C. J. Fettig, E. M. Hansen, J. L. Hayes, J. A. Hicke, R. G. Kelsey, J. F. Negrón, and S. J. Seybold, 2010: Climate change and bark beetles of the Western United States and Canada: Direct and indirect effects. BioScience, 60 (8), 602–613. doi:10.1525/Bio.2010.60.8.6.
  • Bentz, B., J. Logan, J. MacMahon, C. D. Allen, M. Ayres, E. Berg, A. Carroll, M. Hansen, J. Hicke, L. Joyce, W. Macfarlane, S. Munson, J. Negron, T. Paine, J. Powell, K. Raffa, J. Regniere, M. Reid, B. Romme, S. J. Seybold, D. Six, D. Tomback, J. Vandygriff, T. Veblen, M. White, J. Witcosky, and D. Wood, 2009: Bark beetle outbreaks in western North America: Causes and consequences. Bark Beetle Symposium; Snowbird, UT; November, 2005. University of Utah Press (for USFS), Salt Lake City, UT, 42 pp. URL.
  • Berdanier, A. B., and J. S. Clark, 2016: Multiyear drought-induced morbidity preceding tree death in southeastern U.S. forests. Ecological Applications, 26 (1), 17–23. doi:10.1890/15-0274.
  • Bigler, C., D. G. Gavin, C. Gunning, and T. T. Veblen, 2007: Drought induces lagged tree mortality in a subalpine forest in the Rocky Mountains. Oikos, 116 (12), 1983–1994. doi:10.1111/j.2007.0030-1299.16034.x.
  • Birdsey, R. A., A. J. Plantinga, and L. S. Heath, 1993: Past and prospective carbon storage in United States forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 58 (1), 33–40. doi:10.1016/0378-1127(93)90129-B.
  • Birdsey, R., K. Pregitzer, and A. Lucier, 2006: Forest carbon management in the United States: 1600–2100. Journal of Environmental Quality, 35 (4), 1461–1469. doi:10.2134/jeq2005.0162.
  • Bottero, A., A. W. D'Amato, B. J. Palik, J. B. Bradford, S. Fraver, M. A. Battaglia, and L. A. Asherin, 2017: Density-dependent vulnerability of forest ecosystems to drought. Journal of Applied Ecology, 54 (6), 1605–1614. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.12847.
  • Brantley, S., C. R. Ford, and J. M. Vose, 2013: Future species composition will affect forest water use after loss of eastern hemlock from southern Appalachian forests. Ecological Applications, 23 (4), 777–790. doi:10.1890/12-0616.1.
  • Breed, G. A., S. Stichter, and E. E. Crone, 2013: Climate-driven changes in northeastern US butterfly communities. Nature Climate Change, 3 (2), 142–145. doi:10.1038/nclimate1663.
  • Brooks, P. D., and M. W. Williams, 1999: Snowpack controls on nitrogen cycling and export in seasonally snow‐covered catchments. Hydrological Processes, 13 (14‐15), 2177–2190. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1085(199910)13:14/15<2177::AID-HYP850>3.0.CO;2-V.
  • Buitenwerf, R., L. Rose, and S. I. Higgins, 2015: Three decades of multi-dimensional change in global leaf phenology. Nature Climate Change, 5 (4), 364–368. doi:10.1038/nclimate2533.
  • Butry, D. T., J. P. Prestemon, K. L. Abt, and R. Sutphen, 2010: Economic optimisation of wildfire intervention activities. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 19 (5), 659–672. doi:10.1071/WF09090.
  • Cal Fire, 2018: Over 129 Million Dead Trees in California Between 2010-2017 [Story map]. Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (Cal Fire), Sacramento, CA. URL.
  • Caldwell, P. V., C. F. Miniat, K. J. Elliott, W. T. Swank, S. T. Brantley, and S. H. Laseter, 2016: Declining water yield from forested mountain watersheds in response to climate change and forest mesophication. Global Change Biology, 22 (9), 2997–3012. doi:10.1111/gcb.13309.
  • Campbell, J. L., L. E. Rustad, S. F. Christopher, C. T. Driscoll, I. J. Fernandez, P. M. Groffman, D. Houle, J. Kiekbusch, A. H. Magill, M. J. Mitchell, and S. V. Ollinger, 2009: Consequences of climate change for biogeochemical cycling in forests of northeastern North America. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 39 (2), 264–284. doi:10.1139/X08-104.
  • Cancelliere, J., 2015: Effects of Minimum Winter Temperatures on Southern Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) Mortality on Long Island, New York [Master of Science in Entomology Project] M.S., Department of Entomology, University of Nebraska, 20 pp.
  • Choat, B., S. Jansen, T. J. Brodribb, H. Cochard, S. Delzon, R. Bhaskar, S. J. Bucci, T. S. Feild, S. M. Gleason, U. G. Hacke, A. L. Jacobsen, F. Lens, H. Maherali, J. Martinez-Vilalta, S. Mayr, M. Mencuccini, P. J. Mitchell, A. Nardini, J. Pittermann, R. B. Pratt, J. S. Sperry, M.Westoby, I. J. Wright, and .E. Zanne, 2012: Global convergence in the vulnerability of forests to drought. Nature, 491 (7426), 752–755. doi:10.1038/nature11688.
  • Clark, J. S., A. E. Gelfand, C. W. Woodall, and K. Zhu, 2014: More than the sum of the parts: Forest climate response from joint species distribution models. Ecological Applications, 24 (5), 990–999. doi:10.1890/13-1015.1.
  • Clark, J. S., L. Iverson, C. W. Woodall, C. D. Allen, D. M. Bell, D. C. Bragg, A. W. D'Amato, F. W. Davis, M. H. Hersh, I. Ibanez, S. T. Jackson, S. Matthews, N. Pederson, M. Peters, M. W. Schwartz, K. M. Waring, and N. E. Zimmermann, 2016: The impacts of increasing drought on forest dynamics, structure, and biodiversity in the United States. Global Change Biology, 22 (7), 2329–2352. doi:10.1111/gcb.13160.
  • Costello, S. L., and W. C. Schaupp, 2011: First Nebraska state collection record of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Coleopterists Bulletin, 65 (1), 21–23. doi:10.1649/0010-065X-65.1.21.
  • Coulston, J. W., D. N. Wear, and J. M. Vose, 2015: Complex forest dynamics indicate potential for slowing carbon accumulation in the southeastern United States. Scientific Reports, 5, 8002. doi:10.1038/srep08002.
  • Cullingham, C. I., J. E. K. Cooke, S. Dang, C. S. Davis, B. J. Cooke, and D. W. Coltman, 2011: Mountain pine beetle host-range expansion threatens the boreal forest. Molecular Ecology, 20 (10), 2157–2171. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05086.x.
  • D'Amato, A. W., J. B. Bradford, S. Fraver, and B. J. Palik, 2013: Effects of thinning on drought vulnerability and climate response in north temperate forest ecosystems. Ecological Applications, 23 (8), 1735–1742. doi:10.1890/13-0677.1.
  • De la Giroday, H.-M. C., A. L. Carroll, B. S. Lindgren, and B. H. Aukema, 2011: Incoming! Association of landscape features with dispersing mountain pine beetle populations during a range expansion event in western Canada. Landscape Ecology, 26 (8), 1097–1110. doi:10.1007/s10980-011-9628-9.
  • Deal, R. L., N. Smith, and J. Gates, 2017: Ecosystem services to enhance sustainable forest management in the US: Moving from forest service national programmes to local projects in the Pacific Northwest. Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research, 90 (5), 632–639. doi:10.1093/forestry/cpx025.
  • Dennison, P. E., S. C. Brewer, J. D. Arnold, and M. A. Moritz, 2014: Large wildfire trends in the western United States, 1984–2011. Geophysical Research Letters, 41 (8), 2928–2933. doi:10.1002/2014GL059576.
  • Domke, G. M., C. H. Perry, B. F. Walters, L. E. Nave, C. W. Woodall, and C. W. Swanston, 2017: Toward inventory-based estimates of soil organic carbon in forests of the United States. Ecological Applications, 27 (4), 1223–1235. doi:10.1002/eap.1516.
  • Dunckel, K., A. Weiskittel, and G. Fiske, 2017: Projected future distribution of Tsuga canadensis across alternative climate scenarios in Maine, U.S. Forests, 8 (8), 285. doi:10.3390/f8080285.
  • EPA, 2016: Climate Change Indicators: Wildfires. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC. URL.
  • EPA, 2017: Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2015. EPA 430-P-17-001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., 633 pp. URL.
  • Fei, S., J. M. Desprez, K. M. Potter, I. Jo, J. A. Knott, and C. M. Oswalt, 2017: Divergence of species responses to climate change. Science Advances, 3 (5), e1603055. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1603055.
  • Fettig, C. J., K. D. Klepzig, R. F. Billings, A. S. Munson, T. E. Nebeker, J. F. Negrón, and J. T. Nowak, 2007: The effectiveness of vegetation management practices for prevention and control of bark beetle infestations in coniferous forests of the western and southern United States. Forest Ecology and Management, 238 (1), 24–53. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2006.10.011.
  • Fettig, C. J., M. L. Reid, B. J. Bentz, S. Sevanto, D. L. Spittlehouse, and T. Wang, 2013: Changing climates, changing forests: A western North American perspective. Journal of Forestry, 111 (3), 214–228. doi:10.5849/jof.12-085.
  • Foster, J. R., and A. W. D'Amato, 2015: Montane forest ecotones moved downslope in northeastern USA in spite of warming between 1984 and 2011. Global Change Biology, 21 (12), 4497–4507. doi:10.1111/gcb.13046.
  • Frank, D., M. Reichstein, M. Bahn, K. Thonicke, D. Frank, M. D. Mahecha, P. Smith, M. van der Velde, S. Vicca, F. Babst, C. Beer, N. Buchmann, J. G. Canadell, P. Ciais, W. Cramer, A. Ibrom, F. Miglietta, B. Poulter, A. Rammig, S. I. Seneviratne, A. Walz, M. Wattenbach, M. A. Zavala, and J. Zscheischler, 2015: Effects of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle: Concepts, processes and potential future impacts. Global Change Biology, 21 (8), 2861–2880. doi:10.1111/gcb.12916.
  • Garonna, I., R. de Jong, R. Stöckli, B. Schmid, D. Schenkel, D. Schimel, and M. E. Schaepman, 2018: Shifting relative importance of climatic constraints on land surface phenology. Environmental Research Letters, 13 (2), 024025. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aaa17b.
  • Gedalof, Z., and A. A. Berg, 2010: Tree ring evidence for limited direct CO2 fertilization of forests over the 20th century. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24 (3), GB3027. doi:10.1029/2009GB003699.
  • Gergel, D. R., B. Nijssen, J. T. Abatzoglou, D. P. Lettenmaier, and M. R. Stumbaugh, 2017: Effects of climate change on snowpack and fire potential in the western USA. Climatic Change, 141 (2), 287–299. doi:10.1007/s10584-017-1899-y.
  • Ghimire, B., C. A. Williams, G. J. Collatz, M. Vanderhoof, J. Rogan, D. Kulakowski, and J. G. Masek, 2015: Large carbon release legacy from bark beetle outbreaks across Western United States. Global Change Biology, 21 (8), 3087–3101. doi:10.1111/gcb.12933.
  • Gleason, K. E., and A. W. Nolin, 2016: Charred forests accelerate snow albedo decay: Parameterizing the post-fire radiative forcing on snow for three years following fire. Hydrological Processes, 30 (21), 3855–3870. doi:10.1002/hyp.10897.
  • Goode, J. R., C. H. Luce, and J. M. Buffington, 2012: Enhanced sediment delivery in a changing climate in semi-arid mountain basins: Implications for water resource management and aquatic habitat in the northern Rocky Mountains. Geomorphology, 139, 1–15. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2011.06.021.
  • Guardiola-Claramonte, M., P. A. Troch, D. D. Breshears, T. E. Huxman, M. B. Switanek, M. Durcik, and N. S. Cobb, 2011: Decreased streamflow in semi-arid basins following drought-induced tree die-off: A counter-intuitive and indirect climate impact on hydrology. Journal of Hydrology, 406 (3), 225–233. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.06.017.
  • Halofsky, J. E., and D. L. Peterson, 2017: Climate change vulnerability and adaptation in the Blue Mountains. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-939. USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR, 331 pp. URL.
  • Halofsky, J. E., D. L. Peterson, and H. R. Prendeville, 2018: Assessing vulnerabilities and adapting to climate change in northwestern U.S. forests. Climatic Change, 146 (1–2), 89–102. doi:10.1007/s10584-017-1972-6.
  • Halofsky, J., D. Peterson, K. Metlen, M. Myer, and V. Sample, 2016: Developing and implementing climate change adaptation options in forest ecosystems: A case study in southwestern Oregon, USA. Forests, 7 (11), 268. doi:10.3390/f7110268.
  • Hember, R. A., W. A. Kurz, and N. C. Coops, 2017: Relationships between individual-tree mortality and water-balance variables indicate positive trends in water stress-induced tree mortality across North America. Global Change Biology, 23 (4), 1691–1710. doi:10.1111/gcb.13428.
  • Hersh, M. H., R. Vilgalys, and J. S. Clark, 2012: Evaluating the impacts of multiple generalist fungal pathogens on temperate tree seedling survival. Ecology, 93 (3), 511–520. doi:10.1890/11-0598.1.
  • Hessburg, P. F., R. B. Salter, and K. M. James, 2007: Re-examining fire severity relations in pre-management era mixed conifer forests: Inferences from landscape patterns of forest structure. Landscape Ecology, 22 (1), 5–24. doi:10.1007/s10980-007-9098-2.
  • Hicke, J. A., A. J. H. Meddens, and C. A. Kolden, 2016: Recent tree mortality in the western United States from bark beetles and forest fires. Forest Science, 62 (2), 141–153. doi:10.5849/forsci.15-086.
  • Hicke, J. A., A. J. H. Meddens, C. D. Allen, and C. A. Kolden, 2013: Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States. Environmental Research Letters, 8 (3), 035032. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/3/035032.
  • Hicke, J. A., M. C. Johnson, J. L. Hayes, and H. K. Preisler, 2012: Effects of bark beetle-caused tree mortality on wildfire. Forest Ecology and Management, 271, 81–90. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2012.02.005.
  • Holsinger, L., R. E. Keane, D. J. Isaak, L. Eby, and M. K. Young, 2014: Relative effects of climate change and wildfires on stream temperatures: A simulation modeling approach in a Rocky Mountain watershed. Climatic Change, 124 (1), 191–206. doi:10.1007/s10584-014-1092-5.
  • Hurtt, G. C., S. W. Pacala, P. R. Moorcroft, J. Caspersen, E. Shevliakova, R. A. Houghton, and B. Moore, 2002: Projecting the future of the U.S. carbon sink. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99 (3), 1389–1394. doi:10.1073/pnas.012249999.
  • Isaak, D. J., C. H. Luce, B. E. Rieman, D. E. Nagel, E. E. Peterson, D. L. Horan, S. Parkes, and G. L. Chandler, 2010: Effects of climate change and wildfire on stream temperatures and salmonid thermal habitat in a mountain river network. Ecological Applications, 20 (5), 1350–1371. doi:10.1890/09-0822.1.
  • Isaak, D. J., M. K. Young, D. E. Nagel, D. L. Horan, and M. C. Groce, 2015: The cold-water climate shield: Delineating refugia for preserving salmonid fishes through the 21st century. Global Change Biology, 21 (7), 2540–2553. doi:10.1111/gcb.12879.
  • Jactel, H., J. Petit, M.-L. Desprez-Loustau, S. Delzon, D. Piou, A. Battisti, and J. Koricheva, 2012: Drought effects on damage by forest insects and pathogens: A meta-analysis. Global Change Biology, 18 (1), 267–276. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02512.x.
  • Janowiak, M. K., C. W. Swanston, L. M. Nagel, L. A. Brandt, P. R. Butler, S. D. Handler, P. D. Shannon, L. R. Iverson, S. N. Matthews, A. Prasad, and M. P. Peters, 2014: A practical approach for translating climate change adaptation principles into forest management actions. Journal of Forestry, 112 (5), 424–433. doi:10.5849/jof.13-094.
  • Jenkins, M. J., J. B. Runyon, C. J. Fettig, W. G. Page, and B. J. Bentz, 2014: Interactions among the mountain pine beetle, fires, and fuels. Forest Science, 60 (3), 489–501. doi:10.5849/forsci.13-017.
  • Joyce, L. A., S. W. Running, D. D. Breshears, V. H. Dale, R. W. Malmsheimer, R. N. Sampson, B. Sohngen, and C. W. Woodall, 2014: Ch. 7: Forests. Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment. Melillo, J. M., Terese (T.C.) Richmond, and G. W. Yohe, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 175–194. doi:10.7930/J0Z60KZC.
  • Keane, R. E., and C. Key, 2007: CCE fire regimes and their management. Sustaining Rocky Mountain Landscapes: Science, Policy and Management for the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem. Prato, T., and D. Fagre, Eds., Resources for the Future, Washington, DC, 201–212. URL.
  • Keane, R. E., K. C. Ryan, T. T. Veblen, C. D. Allen, J. A. Logan, and B. Hawkes, 2002: The cascading effects of fire exclusion in the Rocky Mountain ecosystems. Rocky Mountain Futures: An Ecological Perspective. Baron, J., Ed., Island Press, Washington, DC, 133–152.
  • Kelly, A. E., and M. L. Goulden, 2008: Rapid shifts in plant distribution with recent climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105 (33), 11823–11826. doi:10.1073/pnas.0802891105.
  • Kolb, T. E., C. J. Fettig, M. P. Ayres, B. J. Bentz, J. A. Hicke, R. Mathiasen, J. E. Stewart, and A. S. Weed, 2016: Observed and anticipated impacts of drought on forest insects and diseases in the United States. Forest Ecology and Management, 380, 321–334. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2016.04.051.
  • Kormos, P. R., C. H. Luce, S. J. Wenger, and W. R. Berghuijs, 2016: Trends and sensitivities of low streamflow extremes to discharge timing and magnitude in Pacific Northwest mountain streams. Water Resources Research, 52 (7), 4990–5007. doi:10.1002/2015WR018125.
  • Krist, F. J., J. R. Ellenwood, M. E. Woods, A. J. McMahan, J. P. Cowardin, D. E. Ryerson, F. J. Sapio, M. O. Zweifler, and S. A. Romero, 2014: 2013–2027 National Insect and Disease Forest Risk Assessment. FHTET-14-01. US Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team (FHTET), Fort Collins, CO, 199 pp. URL.
  • Kukowski, K. R., S. Schwinning, and B. F. Schwartz, 2013: Hydraulic responses to extreme drought conditions in three co-dominant tree species in shallow soil over bedrock. Oecologia, 171 (4), 819–830. doi:10.1007/s00442-012-2466-x.
  • Kurz, W. A., C. C. Dymond, G. Stinson, G. J. Rampley, E. T. Neilson, A. L. Carroll, T. Ebata, and L. Safranyik, 2008: Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change. Nature, 452 (7190), 987–990. doi:10.1038/nature06777.
  • Laband, D. N., A. González-Cabán, and A. Hussain, 2006: Factors that influence administrative appeals of proposed USDA Forest Service fuels reduction actions. Forest Science, 52 (5), 477–488. URL.
  • Latta, G., H. Temesgen, and T. M. Barrett, 2009: Mapping and imputing potential productivity of Pacific Northwest forests using climate variables. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 39 (6), 1197–1207. doi:10.1139/X09-046.
  • Lenoir, J., J. C. Gégout, P. A. Marquet, P. de Ruffray, and H. Brisse, 2008: A significant upward shift in plant species optimum elevation during the 20th century. Science, 320 (5884), 1768–1771. doi:10.1126/science.1156831.
  • Lichter, J., S. A. Billings, S. E. Ziegler, D. Gaindh, R. Ryals, A. C. Finzi, R. B. Jackson, E. A. Stemmler, and W. H. Schlesinger, 2008: Soil carbon sequestration in a pine forest after 9 years of atmospheric CO2 enrichment. Global Change Biology, 14 (12), 2910–2922. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01701.x.
  • Litschert, S. E., T. C. Brown, and D. M. Theobald, 2012: Historic and future extent of wildfires in the Southern Rockies Ecoregion, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 269, 124–133. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2011.12.024.
  • Littell, J. S., D. L. Peterson, K. L. Riley, Y. Liu, and C. H. Luce, 2016: A review of the relationships between drought and forest fire in the United States. Global Change Biology, 22 (7), 2353–2369. doi:10.1111/gcb.13275.
  • Liu, Y., S. L. Goodrick, and J. A. Stanturf, 2013: Future U.S. wildfire potential trends projected using a dynamically downscaled climate change scenario. Forest Ecology and Management, 294, 120–135. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2012.06.049.
  • Liu, Z., M. C. Wimberly, A. Lamsal, T. L. Sohl, and T. J. Hawbaker, 2015: Climate change and wildfire risk in an expanding wildland–urban interface: A case study from the Colorado Front Range Corridor. Landscape Ecology, 30 (10), 1943–1957. doi:10.1007/s10980-015-0222-4.
  • Luce, C. H., J. M. Vose, N. Pederson, J. Campbell, C. Millar, P. Kormos, and R. Woods, 2016: Contributing factors for drought in United States forest ecosystems under projected future climates and their uncertainty. Forest Ecology and Management, 380, 299–308. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2016.05.020.
  • Luce, C. H., V. Lopez-Burgos, and Z. Holden, 2014: Sensitivity of snowpack storage to precipitation and temperature using spatial and temporal analog models. Water Resources Research, 50 (12), 9447–9462. doi:10.1002/2013WR014844.
  • Luce, C., P. Morgan, K. Dwire, D. Isaak, Z. Holden, and B. Rieman, 2012: Climate change, forests, fire, water, and fish: Building resilient landscapes, streams, and managers. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-290. USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO, 207 pp. doi:10.2737/RMRS-GTR-290.
  • Lundquist, J. D., S. E. Dickerson‐Lange, J. A. Lutz, and N. C. Cristea, 2013: Lower forest density enhances snow retention in regions with warmer winters: A global framework developed from plot‐scale observations and modeling. Water Resources Research, 49 (10), 6356–6370. doi:10.1002/wrcr.20504.
  • Marcinkowski, K., D. L. Peterson, and G. J. Ettl, 2015: Nonstationary temporal response of mountain hemlock growth to climatic variability in the North Cascade Range, Washington, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 45 (6), 676–688. doi:10.1139/cjfr-2014-0231.
  • McCarthy, H. R., R. Oren, A. C. Finzi, and K. H. Johnsen, 2006: Canopy leaf area constrains [CO2]-induced enhancement of productivity and partitioning among aboveground carbon pools. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103 (51), 19356–19361. doi:10.1073/pnas.0609448103.
  • McDowell, N. G., A. P. Williams, C. Xu, W. T. Pockman, L. T. Dickman, S. Sevanto, R. Pangle, J. Limousin, J. Plaut, D. S. Mackay, J. Ogee, J. C. Domec, C. D. Allen, R. A. Fisher, X. Jiang, J. D. Muss, D. D. Breshears, S. A. Rauscher, and C. Koven, 2016: Multi-scale predictions of massive conifer mortality due to chronic temperature rise. Nature Climate Change, 6 (3), 295–300. doi:10.1038/nclimate2873.
  • McKenzie, D., and J. S. Littell, 2017: Climate change and the eco-hydrology of fire: Will area burned increase in a warming western USA? Ecological Applications, 27 (1), 26–36. doi:10.1002/eap.1420.
  • McKenzie, D., U. Shankar, R. E. Keane, E. N. Stavros, W. E. Heilman, D. G. Fox, and A. C. Riebau, 2014: Smoke consequences of new wildfire regimes driven by climate change. Earth's Future, 2 (2), 35–59. doi:10.1002/2013EF000180.
  • McLauchlan, K. K., L. M. Gerhart, J. J. Battles, J. M. Craine, A. J. Elmore, P. E. Higuera, M. C. Mack, B. E. McNeil, D. M. Nelson, N. Pederson, and S. S. Perakis, 2017: Centennial-scale reductions in nitrogen availability in temperate forests of the United States. Scientific Reports, 7 (1), 7856. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-08170-z.
  • Melillo, J. M., S. D. Frey, K. M. DeAngelis, W. J. Werner, M. J. Bernard, F. P. Bowles, G. Pold, M. A. Knorr, and A. S. Grandy, 2017: Long-term pattern and magnitude of soil carbon feedback to the climate system in a warming world. Science, 358 (6359), 101–105. doi:10.1126/science.aan2874.
  • Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005: Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC, URL.
  • Miyazaki, Y., 2013: Dynamics of internal carbon resources during masting behavior in trees. Ecological Research, 28 (2), 143–150. doi:10.1007/s11284-011-0892-6.
  • Morris, J. L., S. Cottrell, C. J. Fettig, R. J. DeRose, K. M. Mattor, V. A. Carter, J. Clear, J. Clement, W. D. Hansen, J. A. Hicke, P. E. Higuera, A. W. Seddon, H. Seppä, R. L. Sherriff, J. D. Stednick, and S. J. Seybold, 2018: Bark beetles as agents of change in social–ecological systems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 16 (S1), S34–S43. doi:10.1002/fee.1754.
  • Morris, J. L., S. Cottrell, C. J. Fettig, W. D. Hansen, R. L. Sherriff, V. A. Carter, J. L. Clear, J. Clement, R. J. DeRose, J. A. Hicke, P. E. Higuera, K. M. Mattor, A. W. R. Seddon, H. T. Seppä, J. D. Stednick, and S. J. Seybold, 2017: Managing bark beetle impacts on ecosystems and society: Priority questions to motivate future research. Journal of Applied Ecology, 54 (3), 750–760. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.12782.
  • Mote, P. W., S. Li, D. P. Lettenmaier, M. Xiao, and R. Engel, 2018: Dramatic declines in snowpack in the western US. npj Climate and Atmospheric Science, 1 (1), 2. doi:10.1038/s41612-018-0012-1.
  • Máliš, F., M. Kopecký, P. Petřík, J. Vladovič, J. Merganič, and T. Vida, 2016: Life stage, not climate change, explains observed tree range shifts. Global Change Biology, 22 (5), 1904–1914. doi:10.1111/gcb.13210.
  • Nagel, L. M., B. J. Palik, M. A. Battaglia, A. W. D'Amato, J. M. Guldin, C. W. Swanston, M. K. Janowiak, M. P. Powers, L. A. Joyce, C. I. Millar, D. L. Peterson, L. M. Ganio, C. Kirschbaum, and M. R. Roske, 2017: Adaptive silviculture for climate change: A national experiment in manager-scientist partnerships to apply an adaptation framework. Journal of Forestry, 115 (3), 167–178. doi:10.5849/jof.16-039.
  • Nave, L. E., G. M. Domke, K. L. Hofmeister, U. Mishra, C. H. Perry, B. F. Walters, and C. W. Swanston, 2018: Reforestation can sequester two petagrams of carbon in US topsoils in a century. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115 (11), 2776–2781. doi:10.1073/pnas.1719685115.
  • NFPA, 2018: Firewise USA®: Residents Reducing Wildfire Risks [web page]. National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA. URL.
  • NIACS, 2018: Adaptation Workbook: A Climate Change Tool for Land Management and Conservation [web tool]. Northern Institute of Applied Climate Science, Newtown Square, PA. URL.
  • NIFC, 2017: Federal Firefighting Costs (Suppression Only) [table]. National Interagency Fire Center (NIFC), Boise, ID. URL.
  • Norby, R. J., J. M. Warren, C. M. Iversen, B. E. Medlyn, and R. E. McMurtrie, 2010: CO2 enhancement of forest productivity constrained by limited nitrogen availability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107 (45), 19368–19373. doi:10.1073/pnas.1006463107.
  • Nowacki, G. J., and M. D. Abrams, 2008: The demise of fire and “mesophication” of forests in the eastern United States. BioScience, 58 (2), 123–138. doi:10.1641/B580207.
  • Ojima, D. S., L. R. Iverson, B. L. Sohngen, J. M. Vose, C. W. Woodall, G. M. Domke, D. L. Peterson, J. S. Littell, S. N. Matthews, A. M. Prasad, M. P. Peters, G. W. Yohe, and M. M. Friggens, 2014: Risk assessment. Climate Change and United States Forests. L. Peterson, D., J. M. Vose, and T. Patel-Weynand, Eds., Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 223–244.
  • Ontl, T. A., C. Swanston, L. A. Brandt, P. R. Butler, A. W. D'Amato, S. D. Handler, M. K. Janowiak, and P. D. Shannon, 2018: Adaptation pathways: Ecoregion and land ownership influences on climate adaptation decision-making in forest management. Climatic Change, 146 (1), 75–88. doi:10.1007/s10584-017-1983-3.
  • Oppenheimer, M., M. Campos, R. Warren, J. Birkmann, G. Luber, B. O'Neill, and K. Takahashi, 2014: Emergent risks and key vulnerabilities. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change. Field, C. B., V. R. Barros, D. J. Dokken, K. J. Mach, M. D. Mastrandrea, T. E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K. L. Ebi, Y. O. Estrada, R. C. Genova, B. Girma, E. S. Kissel, A. N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P. R. Mastrandrea, and L. L. White, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1039–1099.
  • Oren, R., D. S. Ellsworth, K. H. Johnsen, N. Phillips, B. E. Ewers, C. Maier, K. V. R. Schafer, H. McCarthy, G. Hendrey, S. G. McNulty, and G. G. Katul, 2001: Soil fertility limits carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems in a CO2-enriched atmosphere. Nature, 411 (6836), 469–472. doi:10.1038/35078064.
  • Osland, M. J., N. Enwright, R. H. Day, and T. W. Doyle, 2013: Winter climate change and coastal wetland foundation species: Salt marshes vs. mangrove forests in the southeastern United States. Global Change Biology, 19 (5), 1482–1494. doi:10.1111/gcb.12126.
  • Oswalt, S. N., W. B. Smith, P. D. Miles, and S. A. Pugh, 2014: Forest Resources of the United States, 2012: A technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 update of the RPA Assessment. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-91. USDA, Forest Service, Washington Office, Washington, DC, 218 pp. URL.
  • Page, W. G., and M. J. Jenkins, 2007: Predicted fire behavior in selected mountain pine beetle infested lodgepole pine. Forest Science, 53, 662–674. doi:10.1093/forestscience/53.6.662.
  • Pan, Y., R. A. Birdsey, J. Fang, R. Houghton, P. E. Kauppi, W. A. Kurz, O. L. Phillips, A. Shvidenko, S. L. Lewis, J. G. Canadell, P. Ciais, R. B. Jackson, S. W. Pacala, A. D. McGuire, S. Piao, A. Rautiainen, S. Sitch, and D. Hayes, 2011: A large and persistent carbon sink in the world's forests. Science, 333 (6045), 988–993. doi:10.1126/science.1201609.
  • Pan, Y., R. Birdsey, J. Hom, and K. McCullough, 2009: Separating effects of changes in atmospheric composition, climate and land-use on carbon sequestration of US Mid-Atlantic temperate forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 259 (2), 151–164. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2009.09.049.
  • Parks, S. A., C. Miller, L. M. Holsinger, L. S. Baggett, and B. J. Bird, 2016: Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 25 (2), 182–190. doi:10.1071/WF15107.
  • Paz‐Kagan, T., P. G. Brodrick, N. R. Vaughn, A. J. Das, N. L. Stephenson, K. R. Nydick, and G. P. Asner, 2017: What mediates tree mortality during drought in the southern Sierra Nevada? Ecological Applications, 27 (8), 2443–2457. doi:10.1002/eap.1620.
  • Pederson, N., A. W. D'Amato, J. M. Dyer, D. R. Foster, D. Goldblum, J. L. Hart, A. E. Hessl, L. R. Iverson, S. T. Jackson, D. Martin-Benito, B. C. McCarthy, R. W. McEwan, D. J. Mladenoff, A. J. Parker, B. Shuman, and J. W. Williams, 2015: Climate remains an important driver of post-European vegetation change in the eastern United States. Global Change Biology, 21 (6), 2105–2110. doi:10.1111/gcb.12779.
  • Pellerin, B. A., J. F. Saraceno, J. B. Shanley, S. D. Sebestyen, G. R. Aiken, W. M. Wollheim, and B. A. Bergamaschi, 2012: Taking the pulse of snowmelt: In situ sensors reveal seasonal, event and diurnal patterns of nitrate and dissolved organic matter variability in an upland forest stream. Biogeochemistry, 108 (1), 183–198. doi:10.1007/s10533-011-9589-8.
  • Peterson, D. L., C. I. Millar, L. A. Joyce, M. J. Furniss, J. E. Halofsky, R. P. Neilson, and T. L. Morelli, 2011: Responding to climate change on national forests: A guidebook for developing adaptation options. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-855. U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, 118 pp. URL.
  • Peterson, D. L., J. E. Halofsky, and M. C. Johnson, 2011: Managing and adapting to changing fire regimes in a warmer climate. The Landscape Ecology of Fire. McKenzie, D., C. Miller, and D. A. Falk, Eds., Springer, 249–267.
  • Peterson, D. L., M. C. Johnson, J. K. Agee, T. B. Jain, D. McKenzie, and E. D. Reinhardt, 2005: Forest Structure and Fire Hazard in Dry Forests of the Western United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-628. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR, 30 pp. doi:10.2737/PNW-GTR-628.
  • Pfeifer, E. M., J. A. Hicke, and A. J. H. Meddens, 2011: Observations and modeling of aboveground tree carbon stocks and fluxes following a bark beetle outbreak in the western United States. Global Change Biology, 17 (1), 339–350. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02226.x.
  • Prestemon, J. P., K. L. Abt, K. M. Potter, and F. H. Koch, 2013: An economic assessment of mountain pine beetle timber salvage in the West. Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 28 (4), 143–153. doi:10.5849/wjaf.12-032.
  • Prestemon, J. P., U. Shankar, A. Xiu, K. Talgo, D. Yang, E. Dixon, D. McKenzie, and K. L. Abt, 2016: Projecting wildfire area burned in the south-eastern United States, 2011–60. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 25 (7), 715–729. doi:10.1071/WF15124.
  • Rabasa, S. G., E. Granda, R. Benavides, G. Kunstler, J. M. Espelta, R. Ogaya, J. Peñuelas, M. Scherer-Lorenzen, W. Gil, W. Grodzki, S. Ambrozy, J. Bergh, J. A. Hódar, R. Zamora, and F. Valladares, 2013: Disparity in elevational shifts of European trees in response to recent climate warming. Global Change Biology, 19 (8), 2490–2499. doi:10.1111/gcb.12220.
  • Raffa, K. F., B. Aukema, B. J. Bentz, A. Carroll, N. Erbilgin, D. A. Herms, J. A. Hicke, R. W. Hofstetter, S. Katovich, B. S. Lindgren, J. Logan, W. Mattson, A. S. Munson, D. J. Robison, D. L. Six, P. C. Tobin, P. A. Townsend, and K. F. Wallin, 2009: A literal use of “forest health” safeguards against misuse and misapplication. Journal of Forestry, 107 (5), 276–277. URL.
  • Ralston, J., W. V. DeLuca, R. E. Feldman, and D. I. King, 2017: Population trends influence species ability to track climate change. Global Change Biology, 23 (4), 1390–1399. doi:10.1111/gcb.13478.
  • Ramsfield, T. D., B. J. Bentz, M. Faccoli, H. Jactel, and E. G. Brockerhoff, 2016: Forest health in a changing world: Effects of globalization and climate change on forest insect and pathogen impacts. Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research, 89 (3), 245–252. doi:10.1093/forestry/cpw018.
  • Rieman, B. E., P. F. Hessburg, C. Luce, and M. R. Dare, 2010: Wildfire and management of forests and native fishes: Conflict or opportunity for convergent solutions? BioScience, 60 (6), 460–468. doi:10.1525/bio.2010.60.6.10.
  • Roman, D. T., K. A. Novick, E. R. Brzostek, D. Dragoni, F. Rahman, and R. P. Phillips, 2015: The role of isohydric and anisohydric species in determining ecosystem-scale response to severe drought. Oecologia, 179 (3), 641–654. doi:10.1007/s00442-015-3380-9.
  • Savage, M., and J. N. Mast, 2005: How resilient are southwestern ponderosa pine forests after crown fires? Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 35 (4), 967–977. doi:10.1139/x05-028.
  • Schoennagel, T., J. K. Balch, H. Brenkert-Smith, P. E. Dennison, B. J. Harvey, M. A. Krawchuk, N. Mietkiewicz, P. Morgan, M. A. Moritz, R. Rasker, M. G. Turner, and C. Whitlock, 2017: Adapt to more wildfire in western North American forests as climate changes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114 (18), 4582–4590. doi:10.1073/pnas.1617464114.
  • Sills, E. O., S. E. Moore, F. W. Cubbage, K. D. McCarter, T. P. Holmes, and D. E. Mercer, 2017: Trees at work: Economic accounting for forest ecosystem services in the U.S. South. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-226. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, NC, 1-117 pp. URL.
  • Simard, M., W. H. Romme, J. M. Griffin, and M. G. Turner, 2011: Do mountain pine beetle outbreaks change the probability of active crown fire in lodgepole pine forests? Ecological Monographs, 81 (1), 3–24. doi:10.1890/10-1176.1.
  • Sohn, J. A., S. Saha, and J. Bauhus, 2016: Potential of forest thinning to mitigate drought stress: A meta-analysis. Forest Ecology and Management, 380, 261–273. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2016.07.046.
  • Sommers, W. T., R. A. Loehman, and C. C. Hardy, 2014: Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Science overview and knowledge needs. Forest Ecology and Management, 317, 1–8. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2013.12.014.
  • Stavros, E. N., J. Abatzoglou, N. K. Larkin, D. McKenzie, and E. A. Steel, 2014: Climate and very large wildland fires in the contiguous western USA. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 23 (7), 899–914. doi:10.1071/WF13169.
  • Stephens, P. A., L. R. Mason, R. E. Green, R. D. Gregory, J. R. Sauer, J. Alison, A. Aunins, L. Brotons, S. H. M. Butchart, T. Campedelli, T. Chodkiewicz, P. Chylarecki, O. Crowe, J. Elts, V. Escandell, R. P. B. Foppen, H. Heldbjerg, S. Herrando, M. Husby, F. Jiguet, A. Lehikoinen, Å. Lindström, D. G. Noble, J.-Y. Paquet, J. Reif, T. Sattler, T. Szép, N. Teufelbauer, S. Trautmann, A. J. van Strien, C. A. M. van Turnhout, P. Vorisek, and S. G. Willis, 2016: Consistent response of bird populations to climate change on two continents. Science, 352 (6281), 84–87. doi:10.1126/science.aac4858.
  • Stephens, S. L., B. M. Collins, C. J. Fettig, M. A. Finney, C. M. Hoffman, E. E. Knapp, M. P. North, H. Safford, and R. B. Wayman, 2018: Drought, tree mortality, and wildfire in forests adapted to frequent fire. BioScience, 68 (2), 77–88. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix146.
  • Stevens‐Rumann, C. S., K. B. Kemp, P. E. Higuera, B. J. Harvey, M. T. Rother, D. C. Donato, P. Morgan, T. T. Veblen, and F. Lloret, 2018: Evidence for declining forest resilience to wildfires under climate change. Ecology Letters, 21 (2), 243–252. doi:10.1111/ele.12889.
  • Sturrock, R. N., S. J. Frankel, A. V. Brown, P. E. Hennon, J. T. Kliejunas, K. J. Lewis, J. J. Worrall, and A. J. Woods, 2011: Climate change and forest diseases. Plant Pathology, 60 (1), 133–149. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2010.02406.x.
  • Swanston, C., L. A. Brandt, M. K. Janowiak, S. D. Handler, P. Butler-Leopold, L. Iverson, F. R. Thompson III, T. A. Ontl, and P. D. Shannon, 2018: Vulnerability of forests of the Midwest and Northeast United States to climate change. Climatic Change, 146 (1), 103–116. doi:10.1007/s10584-017-2065-2.
  • Swanston, C., M. Janowiak, L. Brandt, P. Butler, S. D. Handler, P. D. Shannon, A. Derby Lewis, K. Hall, R. T. Fahey, L. Scott, A. Kerber, J. W. Miesbauer, and L. Darling, 2016: Forest Adaptation Resources: Climate Change Tools and Approaches for Land Managers, 2nd ed. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-87-2. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, PA, 161 pp. URL.
  • Tayleur, C., P. Caplat, D. Massimino, A. Johnston, N. Jonzén, H. G. Smith, and Å. Lindström, 2015: Swedish birds are tracking temperature but not rainfall: Evidence from a decade of abundance changes. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 24 (7), 859–872. doi:10.1111/geb.12308.
  • Terando, A. J., B. Reich, K. Pacifici, J. Costanza, A. McKerrow, and Jaime A. Collazo, 2016: Uncertainty quantification and propagation for projections of extremes in monthly area burned under climate change: A case study in the coastal plain of Georgia, USA. Natural Hazard Uncertainty Assessment: Modeling and Decision Support. Riley, K., P. Webley, and M. Thompson, Eds., American Geophysical Union, 245–256. doi:10.1002/9781119028116.ch16.
  • Texas A&M Forest Service, 2012: Texas A&M Forest Service survey shows 301 million trees killed by drought. URL.
  • Timber Mart-South, 2018: The Journal of Southern Timber Prices. Norris Foundation, Athens, GA, URL.
  • Trumbore, S., P. Brando, and H. Hartmann, 2015: Forest health and global change. Science, 349 (6250), 814–818. doi:10.1126/science.aac6759.
  • U.S. Department of State, 2016: Second Biennial Report of the United States of America. U.S. State Department, Washington, DC, 75 pp. URL.
  • U.S. Forest Service, 2015: The rising cost of wildfire operations: Effects on the Forest Service's non-fire work. USDA, Forest Service, Washington, DC, 16 pp. URL.
  • USDA Forest Service, 2016: Future of America's Forests and Rangelands: Update to the 2010 Resources Planning Act Assessment. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-GTR-94. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC, 250 pp. URL.
  • USDA, 2016: USDA Integrated Projections for Agriculture and Forest Sector Land Use Land-Use Change, and GHG Emissions and Removals: 2015 to 2060. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Office of the Chief Economist, Washington, DC, 24 pp. URL.
  • Vaughan, D., and K. Mackes, 2015: Characteristics of Colorado forestry contractors and their role in current forest health issues. Forest Products Journal, 65 (5–6), 217–225. doi:10.13073/fpj-d-14-00095.
  • Voggesser, G., K. Lynn, J. Daigle, F. K. Lake, and D. Ranco, 2013: Cultural impacts to tribes from climate change influences on forests. Climatic Change, 120 (3), 615–626. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0733-4.
  • Vose, J. M., and K. D. Klepzig, Eds., 2013: Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Management Options: A Guide for Natural Resource Managers in Southern Forest Ecosystems. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 492 pp.
  • Vose, J. M., C. F. Miniat, C. H. Luce, H. Asbjornsen, P. V. Caldwell, J. L. Campbell, G. E. Grant, D. J. Isaak, S. P. Loheide Ii, and G. Sun, 2016: Ecohydrological implications of drought for forests in the United States. Forest Ecology and Management, 380, 335–345. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2016.03.025.
  • Walter, J., A. Jentsch, C. Beierkuhnlein, and J. Kreyling, 2013: Ecological stress memory and cross stress tolerance in plants in the face of climate extremes. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 94, 3–8. doi:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2012.02.009.
  • Waring, R. H., and G. B. Pitman, 1985: Modifying lodgepole pine stands to change susceptibility to mountain pine beetle attack. Ecology, 66 (3), 889–897. doi:10.2307/1940551.
  • Wear, D. N., and J. W. Coulston, 2015: From sink to source: Regional variation in U.S. forest carbon futures. Scientific Reports, 5, 16518. doi:10.1038/srep16518.
  • Wear, D. N., J. P. Prestemon, and M. O. Foster, 2016: US forest products in the global economy. Journal of Forestry, 114 (4), 483–493. doi:10.5849/jof.15-091.
  • Weed, A. S., M. P. Ayres, and J. A. Hicke, 2013: Consequences of climate change for biotic disturbances in North American forests. Ecological Monographs, 83 (4), 441–470. doi:10.1890/13-0160.1.
  • Westerling, A. L., 2016: Increasing western US forest wildfire activity: Sensitivity to changes in the timing of spring. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 371, 20150178. doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0178.
  • Whitlock, C., S. L. Shafer, and J. Marlon, 2003: The role of climate and vegetation change in shaping past and future fire regimes in the northwestern US and the implications for ecosystem management. Forest Ecology and Management, 178 (1), 5–21. doi:10.1016/S0378-1127(03)00051-3.
  • Wiens, J. J., 2016: Climate-related local extinctions are already widespread among plant and animal species. PLOS Biology, 14 (12), e2001104. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.2001104.
  • Williams, C. A., H. Gu, R. MacLean, J. G. Masek, and G. J. Collatz, 2016: Disturbance and the carbon balance of US forests: A quantitative review of impacts from harvests, fires, insects, and droughts. Global and Planetary Change, 143, 66–80. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2016.06.002.
  • Williamson, T. B., and H. W. Nelson, 2017: Barriers to enhanced and integrated climate change adaptation and mitigation in Canadian forest management. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 47 (12), 1567–1576. doi:10.1139/cjfr-2017-0252.
  • Withen, P., 2015: Climate change and wildland firefighter health and safety. New Solutions: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy, 24 (4), 577–584. .
  • Woodall, C. W., B. F. Walters, J. W. Coulston, A. W. D'Amato, G. M. Domke, M. B. Russell, and P. A. Sowers, 2015: Monitoring network confirms land use change is a substantial component of the forest carbon sink in the eastern United States. Scientific Reports, 5, 17028. doi:10.1038/srep17028.
  • Woodall, C. W., K. Zhu, J. A. Westfall, C. M. Oswalt, A. W. D'Amato, B. F. Walters, and H. E. Lintz, 2013: Assessing the stability of tree ranges and influence of disturbance in eastern US forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 291, 172–180. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2012.11.047.
  • Worrall, J. J., G. E. Rehfeldt, A. Hamann, E. H. Hogg, S. B. Marchetti, M. Michaelian, and L. K. Gray, 2013: Recent declines of Populus tremuloides in North America linked to climate. Forest Ecology and Management, 299, 35–51. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2012.12.033.
  • Wyka, S. A., C. Smith, I. A. Munck, B. N. Rock, B. L. Ziniti, and K. Broders, 2017: Emergence of white pine needle damage in the northeastern United States is associated with changes in pathogen pressure in response to climate change. Global Change Biology, 23 (1), 394–405. doi:10.1111/gcb.13359.
  • Xie, Y., K. F. Ahmed, J. M. Allen, A. M. Wilson, and J. A. Silander, 2015: Green-up of deciduous forest communities of northeastern North America in response to climate variation and climate change. Landscape Ecology, 30 (1), 109–123. doi:10.1007/s10980-014-0099-7.
  • Young, D. J., J. T. Stevens, J. M. Earles, J. Moore, A. Ellis, A. L. Jirka, and A. M. Latimer, 2017: Long‐term climate and competition explain forest mortality patterns under extreme drought. Ecology Letters, 20 (1), 78–86. doi:10.1111/ele.12711.
  • Zhu, K., C. W. Woodall, and J. S. Clark, 2012: Failure to migrate: Lack of tree range expansion in response to climate change. Global Change Biology, 18 (3), 1042–1052. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02571.x.

See Full Chapter & References