Federal Coordinating Lead Author:
David Helweg, DOI Pacific Islands Climate Adaptation Science Center
Chapter Lead:
Victoria Keener, East-West Center
Chapter Authors:
Susan Asam, ICF
Seema Balwani, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Maxine Burkett, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa
Charles Fletcher, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa
Thomas Giambelluca, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa
Zena Grecni, East-West Center
Malia Nobrega-Olivera, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa
Jeffrey Polovina, NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
Gordon Tribble, USGS Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center
Review Editor:
Jo-Ann Leong, Hawai‘i Institute of Marine Biology
Technical Contributors:
Malia Akutagawa, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Hawaiʻinuiākea School of Hawaiian Knowledge, Kamakakūokalani Center for Hawaiian Studies, William S. Richardson School of Law, Ka Huli Ao Center for Excellence in Native Hawaiian Law
Rosie Alegado, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Department of Oceanography, UH Sea Grant
Tiffany Anderson, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Geology and Geophysics
Patrick Barnard, U.S. Geological Survey–Santa Cruz
Rusty Brainard, NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
Laura Brewington, East-West Center, Pacific RISA
Jeff Burgett, Pacific Islands Climate Change Cooperative
Rashed Chowdhury, NOAA Pacific ENSO Applications Climate Center
Makena Coffman, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Urban and Regional Planning
Chris Conger, Sea Engineering, Inc.
Kitty Courtney, Tetra Tech, Inc.
Stanton Enomoto, Pacific Islands Climate Change Cooperative
Patricia Fifita, University of Hawai‘i, Pacific Islands Climate Change Cooperative
Lucas Fortini, USGS Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center
Abby Frazier, USDA Forest Service
Kathleen Stearns Friday, USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry
Neal Fujii, State of Hawai‘i Commission on Water Resource Management
Ruth Gates, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology
Christian Giardina, USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry
Scott Glenn, State of Hawai‘i Department of Health, Office of Environmental Quality Control
Matt Gonser, University of Hawai‘i Sea Grant
Jamie Gove, NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
Robbie Greene, CNMI Bureau of Environmental and Coastal Quality
Shellie Habel, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology
Justin Hospital, NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
Darcy Hu, National Park Service
Jim Jacobi, U.S. Geological Survey
Krista Jaspers, East-West Center, Pacific RISA
Todd Jones, NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
Charles Ka‘ai‘ai, Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council
Lauren Kapono, NOAA Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument
Hiʻilei Kawelo, Paepae O Heʻeia
Benton Keali‘i Pang, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Karl Kim, University of Hawai‘i, National Disaster Preparedness Training Center
Jeremy Kimura, State of Hawai‘i Commission on Water Resource Management
Romina King, University of Guam and Pacific Islands Climate Adaptation Science Center
Randy Kosaki, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Michael Kruk, ERT, Inc.
Mark Lander, University of Guam, Water and Environmental Research Institute
Leah Laramee, State of Hawaiʻi Department of Land and Natural Resources
Noelani Lee, Ka Honua Momona
Sam Lemmo, State of Hawai‘i Department of Land and Natural Resources, Interagency Climate Adaptation Committee
Rhonda Loh, Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park
Richard MacKenzie, USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry
John Marra, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Xavier Matsutaro, Republic of Palau, Office of Climate Change
Marie McKenzie, Pacific Islands Climate Change Cooperative
Mark Merrifield, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa
Wendy Miles, Pacific Islands Climate Change Cooperative
Lenore Ohye, State of Hawai‘i Commission on Water Resource Management
Kirsten Oleson, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa
Tom Oliver, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research
Tara Owens, University of Hawai‘i Sea Grant
Jessica Podoski, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers—Fort Shafter
Dan Polhemus, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Kalani Quiocho, NOAA Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument
Robert Richmond, University of Hawaiʻi, Kewalo Marine Lab
Joby Rohrer, O‘ahu Army Natural Resources
Fatima Sauafea-Le‘au, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration—American Sāmoa
Afsheen Siddiqi, State of Hawaiʻi Department of Land and Natural Resources
Irene Sprecher, State of Hawaiʻi, Department of Land and Natural Resources
Joshua Stanbro, City and County of Honolulu Office of Climate Change, Sustainability and Resiliency
Mark Stege, The Nature Conservancy—Majuro
Curt Storlazzi, U.S. Geological Survey–Santa Cruz
William V. Sweet, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Kelley Tagarino, University of Hawai‘i Sea Grant
Jean Tanimoto, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Bill Thomas, NOAA Office for Coastal Management
Phil Thompson, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Oceanography
Mililani Trask, Indigenous Consultants LLC
Barry Usagawa, Honolulu Board of Water Supply
Kees van der Geest, United Nations University, Institute for Environment and Human Security
Adam Vorsino, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
Richard Wallsgrove, Blue Planet Foundation
Matt Widlansky, University of Hawai‘i, Sea Level Center
Phoebe Woodworth-Jefcoats, NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
Stephanie Yelenik, USGS Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center
USGCRP Coordinators:
Allyza Lustig, Program Coordinator
Fredric Lipschultz, Senior Scientist and Regional Coordinator

Hawai‘i and U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands


  • 2016: Little water left as Micronesia struggles with long drought. URL.
  • 2017: One Meter Topobathymetric Digital Elevation Model for Majuro Atoll, Republic of Marshall Islands, 1944 to 2016. doi:10.5066/F7416VXX.
  • Abate, R. S., and E. A. Kronk Warner, Eds., 2013: Climate Change and Indigenous Peoples: The Search for Legal Remedies. Edward Elgar Publishing,.
  • ADB, 2013: The economics of climate change in the Pacific. Asian Development Bank (ADB), Madaluyong City, Philippines, 85 pp. URL.
  • Adger, W. N., J. Barnett, F. S. Chapin III, and H. Ellemor, 2011: This must be the place: Underrepresentation of identity and meaning in climate change decision-making. Global Environmental Politics, 11 (2), 1–25. doi:10.1162/GLEP_a_00051.
  • Akutagawa, M., E. Cole, T. P. Diaz, T. D. Gupta, C. Gupta, S. Kamakaala, M. Taualii, and A. Faʻanunu, 2016: Health Impact Assessment of the Proposed Moʻomomi Community-Based Subsistence Fishing Area. The Kohala Center, Kamuela, HI, URL.
  • Akutagawa, M., H. Williams, S. Kamaka'ala, and Native Hawaiian Rights Clinic, 2016: Traditional & Customary Practices Report for Manaʻe (East) Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi. Office of Hawaiian Affairs, 140 pp. doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.2697.5125.
  • Althor, G., J. E. M. Watson, and R. A. Fuller, 2016: Global mismatch between greenhouse gas emissions and the burden of climate change. Scientific Reports, 6, 20281. doi:10.1038/srep20281.
  • AMAP, 2017: Summary for Policy-Makers. Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo, Norway, 20 pp. URL.
  • Anthoff, D., R. J. Nicholls, and R. S. J. Tol, 2010: The economic impact of substantial sea-level rise. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 15 (4), 321–335. doi:10.1007/s11027-010-9220-7.
  • Asch, R. G., W. W. L. Cheung, and G. Reygondeau, 2018: Future marine ecosystem drivers, biodiversity, and fisheries maximum catch potential in Pacific Island countries and territories under climate change. Marine Policy, 88, 285–294. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2017.08.015.
  • Asifoa-Lagai, M., 2012: “Food Desert” American Samoa: Assessing food desert at school locations. American Samoa Community College, Pago Pago, AS, 21 pp. URL.
  • Australian Bureau of Meteorology, and CSIRO, 2014: Climate Variability, Extremes and Change in the Western Tropical Pacific: New Science and Updated Country Reports 2014. Australian Bureau of Meteorology and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Melbourne, Australia, URL.
  • Bailey, R. T., K. Barnes, and C. D. Wallace, 2016: Predicting future groundwater resources of coral atoll islands. Hydrological Processes, 30 (13), 2092–2105. doi:10.1002/hyp.10781.
  • Baker, N., M. Beger, C. McClennen, A. Ishoda, and F. Edwards, 2011: Reimaanlok: A national framework for conservation area planning in the Marshall Islands. Journal of Marine Biology, 2011, 273034. doi:10.1155/2011/273034.
  • Barkley, H. C., A. L. Cohen, D. C. McCorkle, and Y. Golbuu, 2017: Mechanisms and thresholds for pH tolerance in Palau corals. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 489, 7–14. doi:10.1016/j.jembe.2017.01.003.
  • Barnard, P. L., A. D. Short, M. D. Harley, K. D. Splinter, S. Vitousek, I. L. Turner, J. Allan, M. Banno, K. R. Bryan, A. Doria, J. E. Hansen, S. Kato, Y. Kuriyama, E. Randall-Goodwin, P. Ruggiero, I. J. Walker, and D. K. Heathfield, 2015: Coastal vulnerability across the Pacific dominated by El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Nature Geoscience, 8 (10), 801–807. doi:10.1038/ngeo2539.
  • Barnett, J., 2011: Dangerous climate change in the Pacific Islands: Food production and food security. Regional Environmental Change, 11, S229–S237. doi:10.1007/s10113-010-0160-2.
  • Barnett, J., and S. J. O'Neill, 2012: Islands, resettlement and adaptation. Nature Climate Change, 2 (1), 8–10. doi:10.1038/nclimate1334.
  • Barnett, J., and W. N. Adger, 2003: Climate dangers and atoll countries. Climatic Change, 61 (3), 321–337. doi:10.1023/B:CLIM.0000004559.08755.88.
  • Barnett, J., and W. N. Adger, 2007: Climate change, human security and violent conflict. Political Geography, 26 (6), 639–655. doi:10.1016/j.polgeo.2007.03.003.
  • Barnett, J., M. Busse, and Asia Pacific Network for Global Change Research, 2002: Conclusions on resilience to climate variability in Pacific Island countries. Proceedings of the APN Workshop on Ethnographic Perspectives on Resilience to Climate Variability in Pacific Island Countries, Apia, Samoa, December 2001. Barnett, J., and M. Busse, Eds., Macmillan Brown Centre for Pacific Studies, Christchurch, NZ, 75–77.
  • Bartlett, T., 1995: “Three Years Later, Kauai Tourism Still Feels the Effect of Iniki's Blow.” Travel Weekly, 1995/09/07/, 1–3.
  • Bassiouni, M., 2016: Development of Statistical Methods to Estimate Baseline and Future Low-Flow Characteristics of Ungaged Streams in Hawai‘i. USGS Pacific Islands Water Science Center, URL.
  • Bassiouni, M., and D. S. Oki, 2013: Trends and shifts in streamflow in Hawai‘i, 1913–2008. Hydrological Processes, 27 (10), 1484–1500. doi:10.1002/hyp.9298.
  • Bassiouni, M., R. M. Vogel, and S. A. Archfield, 2016: Panel regressions to estimate low-flow response to rainfall variability in ungaged basins. Water Resources Research, 52 (12), 9470–9494. doi:10.1002/2016WR018718.
  • Bell, J. D., A. Ganachaud, P. C. Gehrke, S. P. Griffiths, A. J. Hobday, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. E. Johnson, R. Le Borgne, P. Lehodey, J. M. Lough, R. J. Matear, T. D. Pickering, M. S. Pratchett, A. S. Gupta, I. Senina, and M. Waycott, 2013: Mixed responses of tropical Pacific fisheries and aquaculture to climate change. Nature Climate Change, 3 (6), 591–599. doi:10.1038/nclimate1838.
  • Bell, J., and M. Taylor, 2015: Building climate-resilient food systems for Pacific Islands. 2015-15. Program Report 2015-15. WorldFish, Penang, Malaysia, URL.
  • Blondel, A., 2012: Climate Change Fuelling Resource-Based Conflicts in the Asia-Pacific. Asia-Pacific Human Development Report Background Papers Series 2012/12. United Nations Development Program, New York, NY, 96 pp. URL.
  • Brainard, R. E., T. Oliver, M. J. McPhaden, A. Cohen, R. Venegas, A. Heenan, B. Vargas-Angel, R. Rotjan, S. Mangubhai, E. Flint, and S. A. Hunter, 2018: Ecological impacts of the 2015/16 El Niño in the central equatorial Pacific [in "Explaining Extreme Events 0f 2016 from a Climate Perspective]. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 99 (1), S21–S26. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0128.1.
  • Bremer, L. L., L. Mandle, C. Trauernicht, P. Pascua, H. L. McMillen, K. Burnett, C. A. Wada, N. Kurashima, S. A. Quazi, T. Giambelluca, P. Chock, and T. Ticktin, 2018: Bringing multiple values to the table: Assessing future land-use and climate change in North Kona, Hawai'i. Ecology and Society, 23 (1), 33. doi:10.5751/ES-09936-230133.
  • Brown and Caldwell, 2016: Technical Memorandum #1: Impacts of Climate Change on Honolulu Water Supplies and Planning Strategies for Mitigation—Understanding Future Climate, Demand, and Land Use Projections for the Island of Oahu. 53 pp.
  • Buhaug, H., 2015: Climate–conflict research: Some reflections on the way forward. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 6 (3), 269–275. doi:10.1002/wcc.336.
  • Burrows, K., and P. L. Kinney, 2016: Exploring the climate change, migration and conflict nexus. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13 (4), 443. doi:10.3390/ijerph13040443.
  • Cai, W., G. Wang, A. Santoso, M. J. McPhaden, L. Wu, F.-F. Jin, A. Timmermann, M. Collins, G. Vecchi, M. Lengaigne, M. H. England, D. Dommenget, K. Takahashi, and E. Guilyardi, 2015: Increased frequency of extreme La Niña events under greenhouse warming. Nature Climate Change, 5 (2), 132–137. doi:10.1038/nclimate2492.
  • Cai, W., M. Lengaigne, S. Borlace, M. Collins, T. Cowan, M. J. McPhaden, A. Timmermann, S. Power, J. Brown, C. Menkes, A. Ngari, E. M. Vincent, and M. J. Widlansky, 2012: More extreme swings of the South Pacific convergence zone due to greenhouse warming. Nature, 488 (7411), 365–369. doi:10.1038/nature11358.
  • Cai, W., S. Borlace, M. Lengaigne, P. van Rensch, M. Collins, G. Vecchi, A. Timmermann, A. Santoso, M. J. McPhaden, L. Wu, M. H. England, G. Wang, E. Guilyardi, and F.-F. Jin, 2014: Increasing frequency of extreme El Niño events due to greenhouse warming. Nature Climate Change, 4 (2), 111–116. doi:10.1038/nclimate2100.
  • Camp, R. J., S. P. Berkowitz, K. Brinck, J. D. Jacobi, J. P. Price, and L. B. Fortini, 2018: Potential impacts of projected climate change on vegetation-management strategies in Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park. Scientific Investigations Report 2018-5012. USGS Pacific Islands Climate Science Center, Manoa, HI, 151 pp. URL.
  • Campbell, J., 2008: International relocation from Pacific island countries: Adaptation failure? In International Conference on Environment, Forced Migration & Social Vulnerability, 9-11 Oct 2008, Bonn, Germany., 10. URL.
  • Campbell, J., 2014: Development, global change and traditional food security in Pacific Island countries. Regional Environmental Change, 15, 1313–1324. doi:10.1007/s10113-014-0697-6.
  • Campbell, J., and O. Warrick, 2014: Climate Change and Migration Issues in the Pacific. UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Pacific Office, Fiji, 54 pp. URL.
  • CDM Smith, 2016: 2016 Water Master Plan. Honolulu Board of Water Supply, Honolulu, HI, various pp. URL.
  • Cesar, H. S. J., and P. J. H. van Beukering, 2004: Economic valuation of the coral reefs of Hawai‘i. Pacific Science, 58 (2), 231–242. doi:10.1353/psc.2004.0014.
  • Cheng, L., and J. Zhu, 2018: 2017 was the warmest year on record for the global ocean. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 35 (3), 261–263. doi:10.1007/s00376-018-8011-z.
  • Cheriton, O. M., C. D. Storlazzi, and K. J. Rosenberger, 2016: Observations of wave transformation over a fringing coral reef and the importance of low-frequency waves and offshore water levels to runup, overwash, and coastal flooding. Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, 121 (5), 3121–3140. doi:10.1002/2015JC011231.
  • Cheung, W. W. L., V. W. Y. Lam, J. L. Sarmiento, K. Kearney, R. Watson, and D. Pauly, 2009: Projecting global marine biodiversity impacts under climate change scenarios. Fish and Fisheries, 10 (3), 235–251. doi:10.1111/j.1467-2979.2008.00315.x.
  • Cheung, W. W. L., V. W. Y. Lam, J. L. Sarmiento, K. Kearney, R. Watson, D. Zeller, and D. Pauly, 2010: Large-scale redistribution of maximum fisheries catch potential in the global ocean under climate change. Global Change Biology, 16 (1), 24–35. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01995.x.
  • Chowdhury, M. R., A. G. Barnston, C. ‘Chip' Guard, S. Duncan, T. A. Schroeder, and P. S. Chu, 2010: Sea-level variability and change in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands: Understanding the high sea levels during 2006–2008. Weather, 65 (10), 263–268. doi:10.1002/wea.468.
  • Choy, A., C. Wabnitz, M. Weijerman, P. Woodworth-Jefcoats, and J. Polovina, 2016: Finding the way to the top: How the composition of oceanic mid-trophic micronekton groups determines apex predator biomass in the central North Pacific. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 549, 9–25. doi:10.3354/meps11680.
  • Chu, P.-S., Y. R. Chen, and T. A. Schroeder, 2010: Changes in precipitation extremes in the Hawaiian Islands in a warming climate. Journal of Climate, 23 (18), 4881–4900. doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3484.1.
  • CIA, 2017: The World Factbook. U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Washington, DC, URL.
  • Ciraci, E., I. Velicogna, J. M. Wahr, and S. C. Swenson, 2015: Mass loss of glaciers and ice caps from GRACE during 2002-2015. In 2015 American Geophysical Union (AGU) Fall Meeting, December 2015, San Francisco, CA. URL.
  • Constable, A. L., 2017: Climate change and migration in the Pacific: Options for Tuvalu and the Marshall Islands. Regional Environmental Change, 17 (4), 1029–1038. doi:10.1007/s10113-016-1004-5.
  • Corendea, C., V. Bello, and T. Bryar, 2015: Promoting Human Security and Minimizing Conflict Associated with Forced-Migration in the Pacific Region. Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat; UN University GCM and EHS, Tokyo, Japan, 33 pp. URL.
  • Corlew, L. K., V. Keener, M. Finucane, L. Brewington, and R. Nunn-Crichton, 2015: Using social network analysis to assess communications and develop networking tools among climate change professionals across the Pacific Islands region. Psychosocial Intervention, 24 (3), 133–146. doi:10.1016/j.psi.2015.07.004.
  • Cvitanovic, C., S. Crimp, A. Fleming, J. Bell, M. Howden, A. J. Hobday, M. Taylor, and R. Cunningham, 2016: Linking adaptation science to action to build food secure Pacific Island communities. Climate Risk Management, 11, 53–62. doi:10.1016/j.crm.2016.01.003.
  • Dangendorf, S., M. Marcos, G. Wöppelmann, C. P. Conrad, T. Frederikse, and R. Riva, 2017: Reassessment of 20th century global mean sea level rise. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114 (23), 5946–5951. doi:10.1073/pnas.1616007114.
  • DeConto, R. M., and D. Pollard, 2016: Contribution of Antarctica to past and future sea-level rise. Nature, 531 (7596), 591–597. doi:10.1038/nature17145.
  • Deser, C., M. A. Alexander, S.-P. Xie, and A. S. Phillips, 2010: Sea surface temperature variability: Patterns and mechanisms. Annual Review of Marine Science, 2 (1), 115–143. doi:10.1146/annurev-marine-120408-151453.
  • Dieng, H. B., A. Cazenave, B. Meyssignac, and M. Ablain, 2017: New estimate of the current rate of sea level rise from a sea level budget approach. Geophysical Research Letters, 44 (8), 3744–3751. doi:10.1002/2017GL073308.
  • Donato, D. C., J. B. Kauffman, R. A. Mackenzie, A. Ainsworth, and A. Z. Pfleeger, 2012: Whole-island carbon stocks in the tropical Pacific: Implications for mangrove conservation and upland restoration. Journal of Environmental Management, 97 (Suppl. C), 89–96. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.12.004.
  • Doney, S. C., M. Ruckelshaus, J. E. Duffy, J. P. Barry, F. Chan, C. A. English, H. M. Galindo, J. M. Grebmeier, A. B. Hollowed, N. Knowlton, J. Polovina, N. N. Rabalais, W. J. Sydeman, and L. D. Talley, 2012: Climate change impacts on marine ecosystems. Annual Review of Marine Science, 4, 11–37. doi:10.1146/annurev-marine-041911-111611.
  • Doney, S. C., V. J. Fabry, R. A. Feely, and J. A. Kleypas, 2009: Ocean acidification: The other CO2 problem. Annual Review of Marine Science, 1 (1), 169–192. doi:10.1146/annurev.marine.010908.163834.
  • Eakin, C. M., G. Liu, A. M. Gomez, J. L. De La Cour, S. F. Heron, W. J. Skirving, E. F. Geiger, K. V. Tirak, and A. E. Strong, 2016: Global coral bleaching 2014-2017: Status and an appeal for observations. Reef Encounter, 31 (1), 20–26. URL.
  • Easterling, D. R., J. R. Arnold, T. Knutson, K. E. Kunkel, A. N. LeGrande, L. R. Leung, R. S. Vose, D. E. Waliser, and M. F. Wehner, 2017: Precipitation Change in the United States. Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 207–230. doi:10.7930/J0H993CC.
  • Elison Timm, O., 2017: Future warming rates over the Hawaiian Islands based on elevation-dependent scaling factors. International Journal of Climatology, 37, 1093–1104. doi:10.1002/joc.5065.
  • Elison Timm, O., T. W. Giambelluca, and H. F. Diaz, 2015: Statistical downscaling of rainfall changes in Hawai‘i based on the CMIP5 global model projections. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 120 (1), 92–112. doi:10.1002/2014JD022059.
  • EPA, 2017: Multi-model Framework for Quantitative Sectoral Impacts Analysis: A Technical Report for the Fourth National Climate Assessment. EPA 430‐R‐17‐001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC, 271 pp. URL.
  • Erikson, L. H., C. A. Hegermiller, P. L. Barnard, P. Ruggiero, and M. van Ormondt, 2015: Projected wave conditions in the Eastern North Pacific under the influence of two CMIP5 climate scenarios. Ocean Modelling, 96 (Part 1), 171–185. doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2015.07.004.
  • Field, M. E., S. A. Cochran, J. B. Logan, and C. D. Storlazzi, Eds., 2008: The Coral Reef of South Moloka`i, Hawai`i; Portrait of a Sediment-Threatened Fringing Reef. USGS Scientific Investigation Report 2007-5101. U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, 180 pp. URL.
  • Fletcher, C. H., 2016: IUCN: We need public service announcements about climate change. Honolulu Civil Beat. Honolulu, HI. URL.
  • Fletcher, C. H., and B. M. Richmond, 2010: Climate Change in the Federated States of Micronesia: Food and Water Security, Climate Risk Management, and Adaptive Strategies. Report of Findings 2010. Hawaii Sea Grant College Program, Honolulu, HI, 29 pp. URL.
  • Forest Peoples Programme, International Indigenous Forum on Biodiversity, and Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2016: Local Biodiversity Outlooks: Indigenous Peoples' and Local Communities' Contributions to the Implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020. A complement to the fourth edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook. Moreton-in-Marsh, England, 79 pp. URL.
  • Fortini, L. B., 2016: Final Project Report for “Expanding a Dynamic Model of Species Vulnerability to Climate Change for Hawai`i and Other Pacific Island Ecosystems.” Honolulu, HI, URL.
  • Fortini, L. B., A. E. Vorsino, F. A. Amidon, E. H. Paxton, and J. D. Jacobi, 2015: Large-scale range collapse of Hawaiian forest birds under climate change and the need 21st century conservation options. PLOS ONE, 10, e0144311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0140389.
  • Fortini, L., J. Price, J. Jacobi, A. Vorsino, J. Burgett, K. Brinck, S. ‘Ohukani‘ohi‘a Gon III, G. Koob, and E. Paxton, 2013: A landscape-based assessment of climate change vulnerability for all native Hawaiian plants. Technical Report HCSU-044. University of Hawai‘i at Hilo, Hawai‘i Cooperative Studies Unit, Hilo, HI, 134 pp. URL.
  • Frazier, A. G., and T. W. Giambelluca, 2017: Spatial trend analysis of Hawaiian rainfall from 1920 to 2012. International Journal of Climatology, 37 (5), 2522–2531. doi:10.1002/joc.4862.
  • Freshwater, A., and D. Talagi, 2010: Desalination in Pacific Island Countries. A Preliminary Overview. SOPAC Technical Report 437. South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC), Suva, Fiji, 49 pp. URL.
  • Friday, J. B., K. Friday, and C. Elevitch, 2017: Appendix A: Regional summaries: Hawaii and the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands. Agroforestry: Enhancing Resiliency in U.S. Agricultural Landscapes Under Changing Conditions. Schoeneberger, M. M., G. Bentrup, and T. Patel-Weynand, Eds., U.S. Department of Agricutlure, Forest Service, Washington, DC, 147–153. URL.
  • Friday, K., V. Garcia Jr., M. Haws, H. Manner, J. Marra, J. T. Potemra, and L. Rufus, 2017: Agroforestry in the Climate of the Marshall Islands. URL.
  • Friedlander, A., K. Poepoe, K. Helm, P. Bartram, J. Maragos, and I. Abbott, 2000: Application of Hawaiian traditions to community-based fishery management. In Proceedings of the Ninth International Coral Reef Symposium, Bali, 23-27 Oct. 2000. Vol. 2, 813–818. URL.
  • Garza, J. A., P.-S. Chu, C. W. Norton, and T. A. Schroeder, 2012: Changes of the prevailing trade winds over the islands of Hawaii and the North Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117 (D11), D11109. doi:10.1029/2011JD016888.
  • Gemenne, F., J. Barnett, W. N. Adger, and G. D. Dabelko, 2014: Climate and security: Evidence, emerging risks, and a new agenda. Climatic Change, 123 (1), 1–9. doi:10.1007/s10584-014-1074-7.
  • Giambelluca, T. W., Q. Chen, A. G. Frazier, J. P. Price, Y.-L. Chen, P.-S. Chu, J. K. Eischeid, and D. M. Delparte, 2013: Online rainfall atlas of Hawai‘i. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94 (3), 313–316. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00228.1.
  • Gillett, R., M. McCoy, L. Rodwell, and J. Tamate, 2001: Tuna: A Key Economic Resource in the Pacific Islands. Asian Development Bank, Manila, Philippines, 95 pp. URL.
  • Gilman, E. L., J. Ellison, N. C. Duke, and C. Field, 2008: Threats to mangroves from climate change and adaptation options: A review. Aquatic Botany, 89 (2), 237–250. doi:10.1016/j.aquabot.2007.12.009.
  • Gilman, E., J. Ellison, and R. Coleman, 2006: Assessment of mangrove response to projected relative sea-level rise and recent historical reconstruction of shoreline position. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 124 (1–3), 105–130. doi:10.1007/s10661-006-9212-y.
  • Gingerich, S. B., C. I. Voss, and A. G. Johnson, 2017: Seawater-flooding events and impact on freshwater lenses of low-lying islands: Controlling factors, basic management and mitigation. Journal of Hydrology, 551, 676688. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.03.001.
  • Gingerich, S. B., V. Keener, and M. L. Finucane, 2015: Climate trends and projections for Guam. East-West Center and USGS, Honolulu, HI, 2 pp. URL.
  • Gleckler, P. J., P. J. Durack, R. J. Stouffer, G. C. Johnson, and C. E. Forest, 2016: Industrial-era global ocean heat uptake doubles in recent decades. Nature Climate Change, 6 (4), 394–398. doi:10.1038/nclimate2915.
  • Gombos, M., S. Atkinson, and S. Wongbusarakum, 2013: Adapting to a Changing Climate: Guide to Local Early Action Planning (LEAP) and Management Planning. Micronesia Conservation Trust, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, 118 pp. URL.
  • Government of Palau, 2015: Palau Climate Change Policy: For Climate and Disaster Resilient Low Emissions Development. Office of the President, Koror, Palau, 30 pp. URL.
  • Governor's Economic Recovery Committee, 1993: Imua: Kauai Beyond Hurricane Iniki. Honolulu, HI, 50 pp.
  • Green Climate Fund, 2015: Accredited Entity: Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP). Green Climate Fund, Incheon, Republic of Korea. URL.
  • Greene, R., and R. Skeele, 2014: Climate change vulnerability assessment for the Island of Saipan, CNMI. Prepared for CNMI Office of the Governor, Division of Coastal Resources Management, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, 95 pp. URL.
  • Gregg, R. M., 2018: Hawaiian Islands Climate Vulnerability and Adaptation Synthesis. EcoAdapt, Bainbridge, Island, WA, 278 pp. URL.
  • Habel, S., C. H. Fletcher, K. Rotzoll, and A. I. El-Kadi, 2017: Development of a model to simulate groundwater inundation induced by sea-level rise and high tides in Honolulu, Hawaii. Water Research, 114, 122–134. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2017.02.035.
  • Hadwen, W. L., B. Powell, M. C. MacDonald, M. Elliott, T. Chan, W. Gernjak, and W. G. L. Aalbersberg, 2015: Putting WASH in the water cycle: Climate change, water resources and the future of water, sanitation and hygiene challenges in Pacific Island Countries. Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 5 (2), 183–191. doi:10.2166/washdev.2015.133.
  • Hamlington, B. D., S. H. Cheon, P. R. Thompson, M. A. Merrifield, R. S. Nerem, R. R. Leben, and K. Y. Kim, 2016: An ongoing shift in Pacific Ocean sea level. Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, 121 (7), 5084–5097. doi:10.1002/2016JC011815.
  • Hawaii Climate Adaptation Initiative Act (H.B. No.1714). 2014. URL.
  • Hawaii Office of Planning, 2012: Increased Food Security and Food Self-Sufficiency Strategy. Hawaii Department of  Business Economic Development & Tourism, Office of Planning, Honolulu, HI, 47 pp. URL.
  • Hawai‘i Climate Commission, 2017: Hawaiʻi Sea Level Rise Vulnerability and Adaptation Report. Hawai‘i Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Commission, Honolulu, HI, 264 pp. URL.
  • Hawai‘i Fresh Water Initiative, 2015: A Blueprint for Action: Water Security for an Uncertain Future 2016-2018. Hawai‘i Community Foundation, Honolulu, HI, 23 pp. URL.
  • Hawai‘i Toursim Authority, 2016: 2015 Annual Visitor Research Report. Hawai‘i Toursim Authority, Honolulu, HI. URL.
  • Helweg, D. A., V. Keener, and J. M. Burgett, 2016: Report from the workshop on climate downscaling and its application in high Hawaiian Islands, September 16–17, 2015. USGS Open-File report 2016-1102. U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, 25 pp. URL.
  • Henson, S. A., C. Beaulieu, T. Ilyina, J. G. John, M. Long, R. Séférian, J. Tjiputra, and J. L. Sarmiento, 2017: Rapid emergence of climate change in environmental drivers of marine ecosystems. Nature Communications, 8, 14682. doi:10.1038/ncomms14682.
  • Hernández-Delgado, E. A., 2015: The emerging threats of climate change on tropical coastal ecosystem services, public health, local economies and livelihood sustainability of small islands: Cumulative impacts and synergies. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 101 (1), 5–28. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.09.018.
  • Hixson, L., B. B. Hepler, and M. O. Kim, 2012: The Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Population: 2010 . 2010 Census Briefs: C2010BR-12. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC, 22 pp. URL.
  • Hoegh-Guldberg, O., 1999: Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world's coral reefs. Marine & Freshwater Research, 50 (8), 839–866. doi:10.1071/MF99078.
  • Hoeke, R. K., K. L. McInnes, J. C. Kruger, R. J. McNaught, J. R. Hunter, and S. G. Smithers, 2013: Widespread inundation of Pacific islands triggered by distant-source wind-waves. Global and Planetary Change, 108, 128–138. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2013.06.006.
  • Hsiang, S. M., and M. Burke, 2014: Climate, conflict, and social stability: What does the evidence say? Climatic Change, 123 (1), 39–55. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0868-3.
  • Hsiang, S. M., M. Burke, and E. Miguel, 2013: Quantifying the influence of climate on human conflict. Science, 341 (6151), 1235367. doi:10.1126/science.1235367.
  • Hughes, T. P., J. T. Kerry, M. Álvarez-Noriega, J. G. Álvarez-Romero, K. D. Anderson, A. H. Baird, R. C. Babcock, M. Beger, D. R. Bellwood, R. Berkelmans, T. C. Bridge, I. R. Butler, M. Byrne, N. E. Cantin, S. Comeau, S. R. Connolly, G. S. Cumming, S. J. Dalton, G. Diaz-Pulido, C. M. Eakin, W. F. Figueira, J. P. Gilmour, H. B. Harrison, S. F. Heron, A. S. Hoey, J.-P. A. Hobbs, M. O. Hoogenboom, E. V. Kennedy, C.-Y. Kuo, J. M. Lough, R. J. Lowe, G. Liu, M. T. McCulloch, H. A. Malcolm, M. J. McWilliam, J. M. Pandolfi, R. J. Pears, M. S. Pratchett, V. Schoepf, T. Simpson, W. J. Skirving, B. Sommer, G. Torda, D. R. Wachenfeld, B. L. Willis, and S. K. Wilson, 2017: Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals. Nature, 543 (7645), 373–377. doi:10.1038/nature21707.
  • Ichiho, H. M., Y. Demei, S. Kuartei, and N. Aitaoto, 2013: An assessment of non-communicable diseases, diabetes, and related risk factors in the Republic of Palau: A systems perspective. Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health, 72 (5 Suppl 1), 98–105. URL.
  • IPCC, 2000: Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. A Special Report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 570 pp. URL.
  • IPCC, 2013: Annex I: Atlas of global and regional climate projections. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Stocker, T. F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, and P. M. Midgley, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1311–1394. doi:10.1017/CBO9781107415324.029.
  • IPCC, 2013: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Stocker, T. F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, and P. M. Midgley, Eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, 1535 pp. URL.
  • Jacobi, J. D., J. P. Price, L. B. Fortini, G. 'Ohukani'ohi'a III Samuel M., and P. Berkowitz, 2017: Baseline land cover. Baseline and Projected Future Carbon Storage and Carbon Fluxes in Ecosystems of Hawai‘i. Selmants, P. C., C. P. Giardina, J. D. Jacobi, and Z. Zhu, Eds., U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, 9–20. URL.
  • Kallis, G., and C. Zografos, 2014: Hydro-climatic change, conflict and security. Climatic Change, 123 (1), 69–82. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0893-2.
  • Kapua‘ala Sproat, D., 2016: An indigenous people's right to environmental self-determination: Native Hawaiians and the struggle against climate change devastation. Stanford Environmental Law Journal, 35 (2), 157–220. URL.
  • Karl, D. M., and M. J. Church, 2017: Ecosystem structure and dynamics in the North Pacific subtropical gyre: New views of an old ocean. Ecosystems, 20 (3), 433–457. doi:10.1007/s10021-017-0117-0.
  • Keener, V., J. J. Marra, M. L. Finucane, D. Spooner, and M. H. Smith, Eds., 2012: Climate Change and Pacific Islands: Indicators and Impacts. Report for the 2012 Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment (PIRCA). Island Press, Washington, D.C., 170 pp. URL.
  • Kelley, C. P., S. Mohtadi, M. A. Cane, R. Seager, and Y. Kushnir, 2015: Climate change in the Fertile Crescent and implications of the recent Syrian drought. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112 (11), 3241–3246. doi:10.1073/pnas.1421533112.
  • Kellogg Brown and Root Pty. Ltd, and N. KBR.com, 2012: Strengthening the Capacity of Pacific Developing Member Countries to Respond to Climate Change (Phase 1). 7394-REG. URL.
  • Khazendar, A., E. Rignot, D. M. Schroeder, H. Seroussi, M. P. Schodlok, B. Scheuchl, J. Mouginot, T. C. Sutterley, and I. Velicogna, 2016: Rapid submarine ice melting in the grounding zones of ice shelves in West Antarctica. Nature Communications, 7, 13243. doi:10.1038/ncomms13243.
  • KHON Web Staff, 2015: HECO lifts power conservation amid hot, muggy conditions. KHON2 (Nexstar Broadcasting), Honolulu, HI. URL.
  • Kleinbauer, I., S. Dullinger, J. Peterseil, and F. Essl, 2010: Climate change might drive the invasive tree Robinia pseudacacia into nature reserves and endangered habitats. Biological Conservation, 143 (2), 382–390. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2009.10.024.
  • Knutson, T. R., J. J. Sirutis, M. Zhao, R. E. Tuleya, M. Bender, G. A. Vecchi, G. Villarini, and D. Chavas, 2015: Global projections of intense tropical cyclone activity for the late twenty-first century from dynamical downscaling of CMIP5/RCP4.5 scenarios. Journal of Climate, 28 (18), 7203–7224. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0129.1.
  • Knutti, R., and J. Sedláček, 2013: Robustness and uncertainties in the new CMIP5 climate model projections. Nature Climate Change, 3 (4), 369–373. doi:10.1038/nclimate1716.
  • Kopp, R. E., R. M. Horton, C. M. Little, J. X. Mitrovica, M. Oppenheimer, D. J. Rasmussen, B. H. Strauss, and C. Tebaldi, 2014: Probabilistic 21st and 22nd century sea-level projections at a global network of tide-gauge sites. Earth's Future, 2 (8), 383–406. doi:10.1002/2014EF000239.
  • Kossin, J. P., T. Hall, T. Knutson, K. E. Kunkel, R. J. Trapp, D. E. Waliser, and M. F. Wehner, 2017: Extreme Storms. Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 257–276. doi:10.7930/J07S7KXX.
  • Kramer, K. L., S. P. Cotton, M. R. Lamson, and W. J. Walsh, 2016: Bleaching and catastrophic mortality of reef-building corals along west Hawai‘i island: Findings and future directions. In Bridging Science to Policy: Proceedings of the 13th International Coral Reef Symposium, 2016, Honolulu, HI., 219–230. URL.
  • Krauss, K. W., N. Cormier, M. J. Osland, M. L. Kirwan, C. L. Stagg, J. A. Nestlerode, M. J. Russell, A. S. From, A. C. Spivak, D. D. Dantin, J. E. Harvey, and A. E. Almario, 2017: Created mangrove wetlands store belowground carbon and surface elevation change enables them to adjust to sea-level rise. Scientific Reports, 7 (1), 1030. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-01224-2.
  • Kruk, M. C., A. M. Lorrey, G. M. Griffiths, M. Lander, E. J. Gibney, H. J. Diamond, and J. J. Marra, 2015: On the state of the knowledge of rainfall extremes in the western and northern Pacific basin. International Journal of Climatology, 35 (3), 321–336. doi:10.1002/joc.3990.
  • Lazrus, H., 2012: Sea change: Island communities and climate change. Annual Review of Anthropology, 41 (1), 285–301. doi:10.1146/annurev-anthro-092611-145730.
  • Le Bars, D., S. Drijfhout, and H. de Vries, 2017: A high-end sea level rise probabilistic projection including rapid Antarctic ice sheet mass loss. Environmental Research Letters, 12 (4), 044013. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aa6512.
  • Lee, T., and M. J. McPhaden, 2010: Increasing intensity of El Niño in the central-equatorial Pacific. Geophysical Research Letters, 37 (14), L14603. doi:10.1029/2010GL044007.
  • Lehodey, P., I. Senina, B. Calmettes, J. Hampton, and S. Nicol, 2012: Modelling the impact of climate change on Pacific skipjack tuna population and fisheries. Climatic Change, 119 (1), 95–109. doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0595-1.
  • Leong, J.-A., J. J. Marra, M. L. Finucane, T. Giambelluca, M. Merrifield, S. E. Miller, J. Polovina, E. Shea, M. Burkett, J. Campbell, P. Lefale, F. Lipschultz, L. Loope, D. Spooner, and B. Wang, 2014: Ch. 23: Hawai‘i and U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands. Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment. Melillo, J. M., T. (T. C. . Richmond, and G. W. Yohe, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 537–556. doi:10.7930/J0W66HPM.
  • Leung, P. S., and M. Loke, 2008: Economic Impacts of Improving Hawaii's Food Self-sufficiency. EI-16. Economic Impacts, EI-16. University of Hawai‘i at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, Manoa, HI, 7 pp. URL.
  • Liao, W., C. T. Atkinson, D. A. LaPointe, and M. D. Samuel, 2017: Mitigating future avian malaria threats to Hawaiian forest birds from climate change. PLOS ONE, 12 (1), e0168880. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0168880.
  • Lo, R., Personal communication with the Chief of Natural Resource Mangement at Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park National Park Service.
  • Loope, L. L., 1998: Hawaii and the Pacific Islands. Status and Trends of the Nation's Biological Resources. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, National Wetlands Research Center, Washington, D.C., 747-774 pp. URL.
  • Luchetti, N. T., J. R. P. Sutton, E. E. Wright, M. C. Kruk, and J. J. Marra, 2016: When El Niño rages: How satellite data can help water-stressed islands. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 97, 2249–2255. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00219.1.
  • Mainka, S. A., and G. W. Howard, 2010: Climate change and invasive species: double jeopardy. Integrative Zoology, 5 (2), 102–111. doi:10.1111/j.1749-4877.2010.00193.x.
  • Mantua, N. J., S. R. Hare, Y. Zhang, J. M. Wallace, and R. C. Francis, 1997: A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 78 (6), 1069–1080. doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<1069:APICOW>2.0.CO;2.
  • Marra, J. J., and M. C. Kruk, 2017: State of Environmental Conditions in Hawaii and the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands Under a Changing Climate: 2017. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI), 82 pp. URL.
  • Matear, R. J., M. A. Chamberlain, C. Sun, and M. Feng, 2015: Climate change projection for the western tropical Pacific Ocean using a high-resolution ocean model: Implications for tuna fisheries. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 113, 22–46. doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2014.07.003.
  • McGarth, C., 2010: Renewable Desalination Market Analysis: Oceania, South Africa, Middle East & North Africa. ProDes Project and Aquamarine Power Ltd, Munich, Germany, 91 pp. URL.
  • McGree, S., K. Whan, D. Jones, L. V. Alexander, A. Imielska, H. Diamond, E. Ene, S. Finaulahi, K. Inape, L. Jacklick, R. Kumar, V. Laurent, H. Malala, P. Malsale, T. Moniz, M. Ngemaes, A. Peltier, A. Porteous, R. Pulehetoa-Mitiepo, S. Seuseu, E. Skilling, L. Tahani, F. Teimitsi, U. Toorua, and M. Vaiimene, 2014: An updated assessment of trends and variability in total and extreme rainfall in the western Pacific. International Journal of Climatology, 34 (8), 2775–2791. doi:10.1002/joc.3874.
  • McKenzie, M. M., 2016: Regional Temperature Trends in Hawai'i: A Century of Change, 1916-2015 M.A., Department of Geography, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, URL.
  • McMillen, H., T. Ticktin, and H. K. Springer, 2017: The future is behind us: Traditional ecological knowledge and resilience over time on Hawai‘i Island. Regional Environmental Change, 17 (2), 579–592. doi:10.1007/s10113-016-1032-1.
  • McNamara, K. E., 2013: Taking stock of community-based climate-change adaptation projects in the Pacific: Climate change adaptation in the Pacific. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 54 (3), 398–405. doi:10.1111/apv.12033.
  • McNaught, R., O. Warrick, and A. Cooper, 2014: Communicating climate change for adaptation in rural communities: A Pacific study. Regional Environmental Change, 14 (4), 1491–1503. doi:10.1007/s10113-014-0592-1.
  • Meehl, G. A., 1996: Vulnerability of freshwater resources to climate change in the tropical Pacific region. Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation in Asia and the Pacific: Manila, Philippines, 15–19 January 1996. Erda, L., W. C. Bolhofer, S. Huq, S. Lenhart, S. K. Mukherjee, J. B. Smith, and J. Wisniewski, Eds., Springer, Netherlands, 203–213. doi:10.1007/978-94-017-1053-4.
  • Melillo, J. M., T. (T. C. . Richmond, and G. W. Yohe, Eds., 2014: Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 841 pp. doi:10.7930/J0Z31WJ2.
  • Merrifield, M. A., J. M. Becker, M. Ford, and Y. Yao, 2014: Observations and estimates of wave-driven water level extremes at the Marshall Islands. Geophysical Research Letters, 41 (20), 7245–7253. doi:10.1002/2014GL061005.
  • Mitrovica, J. X., N. Gomez, E. Morrow, C. Hay, K. Latychev, and M. E. Tamisiea, 2011: On the robustness of predictions of sea level fingerprints. Geophysical Journal International, 187 (2), 729–742. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05090.x.
  • Moberg, F., and P. Rönnbäck, 2003: Ecosystem services of the tropical seascape: Interactions, substitutions and restoration. Ocean & Coastal Management, 46 (1), 27–46. doi:10.1016/S0964-5691(02)00119-9.
  • Monnereau, I., and S. Abraham, 2013: Limits to autonomous adaptation in response to coastal erosion in Kosrae, Micronesia. International Journal of Global Warming, 5 (4), 416–432. doi:10.1504/IJGW.2013.057283.
  • Mumby, P. J., A. J. Edwards, J. E. Arias-González, K. C. Lindeman, P. G. Blackwell, A. Gall, M. I. Gorczynska, A. R. Harborne, C. L. Pescod, H. Renken, C. C. C. Wabnitz, and G. Llewellyn, 2004: Mangroves enhance the biomass of coral reef fish communities in the Caribbean. Nature, 427 (6974), 533–536. doi:10.1038/nature02286.
  • Murakami, H., B. Wang, T. Li, and A. Kitoh, 2013: Projected increase in tropical cyclones near Hawaii. Nature Climate Change, 3 (8), 749–754. doi:10.1038/nclimate1890.
  • Nerem, R. S., B. D. Beckley, J. T. Fasullo, B. D. Hamlington, D. Masters, and G. T. Mitchum, 2018: Climate-change–driven accelerated sea-level rise detected in the altimeter era. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115 (9), 2022–2025. doi:10.1073/pnas.1717312115.
  • Nicholls, R. J., and R. S. J. Tol, 2006: Impacts and responses to sea-level rise: A global analysis of the SRES scenarios over the twenty-first century. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 364 (1841), 1073–1095. doi:10.1098/rsta.2006.1754.
  • NOAA Central Pacific Hurricane Center, 1992: The 1992 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season. NOAA Central Pacific Hurricane Center, Honolulu, HI. URL.
  • NOAA Central Pacific Hurricane Center, 2015: Historic Hurricane Season—2015 Summary for the Central Pacific Basin [media advisory]. NOAA Central Pacific Hurricane Center, Honolulu, HI. URL.
  • Nunn, P. D., J. Runman, M. Falanruw, and R. Kumar, 2016: Culturally grounded responses to coastal change on islands in the Federated States of Micronesia, northwest Pacific Ocean. Regional Environmental Change, 4 (17), 959–971. doi:10.1007/s10113-016-0950-2.
  • Nurse, L. A., R. F. McLean, J. Agard, L. P. Briguglio, V. Duvat-Magnan, N. Pelesikoti, E. Tompkins, and A. Webb, 2014: Small islands. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part B: Regional Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change. Barros, V. R., C. B. Field, D. J. Dokken, M. D. Mastrandrea, K. J. Mach, T. E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K. L. Ebi, Y. O. Estrada, R. C. Genova, B. Girma, E. S. Kissel, A. N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P. R. Mastrandrea, and L. L. White, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1613–1654.
  • Nuuhiwa, K., O. Lilly, M. Nobrega-Olivera, and M. Huihui, 2016: ʻAimalama: E Mauliauhonua—Readapting to Ancestral Knowledge for Survival. LAMA & Kama‘aha Education Initiative, [Honolulu, HI], 15 pp. URL.
  • O'Leary, J. K., F. Micheli, L. Airoldi, C. Boch, G. De Leo, R. Elahi, F. Ferretti, N. A. J. Graham, S. Y. Litvin, N. H. Low, S. Lummis, K. J. Nickols, and J. Wong, 2017: The resilience of marine ecosystems to climatic disturbances. BioScience, 67 (3), 208–220. doi:10.1093/biosci/biw161.
  • Oki, D. S., 2004: Trends in streamflow characteristics at long-term gaging stations, Hawaii. 2004-5080. USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5080. U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, 116 pp. URL.
  • Oki, D. S., S. B. Gingerich, and R. L. Whitehead, 1999: Hawaii. Ground Water Atlas of the United States, Segment 13, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Miller, J. A., R. L. Whitehead, S. B. Gingerich, D. S. Oki, and P. G. Olcott, Eds., U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, N12–N22, N36.
  • One World One Water, 2017: Hawaii drought plan: 2017 update. State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, Honolulu, HI, 131 pp. URL.
  • Osland, M. J., L. C. Feher, K. T. Griffith, K. C. Cavanaugh, N. M. Enwright, R. H. Day, C. L. Stagg, K. W. Krauss, R. J. Howard, J. B. Grace, and K. Rogers, 2017: Climatic controls on the global distribution, abundance, and species richness of mangrove forests. Ecological Monographs, 87 (2), 341–359. doi:10.1002/ecm.1248.
  • Pacific Islands Forum, 2013: Majuro Declaration for Climate Leadership [Annex 1 and 2 of the 44th Forum Communiqué]. Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 12 pp. URL.
  • Pacific Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA), 2016: Survey Report: User Input for Next Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment.
  • Padgett, G., 2005: Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary: February 2005. Australian Severe Weather, [Sydney, Australia], URL.
  • Page, C., L. Bony, and L. Schewel, 2007: Island of Hawaii Whole System Project: Phase I Report. Rocky Mountain Institute, 84 pp. URL.
  • Pandolfi, J. M., S. R. Connolly, D. J. Marshall, and A. L. Cohen, 2011: Projecting coral reef futures under global warming and ocean acidification. Science, 333 (6041), 418–422. doi:10.1126/science.1204794.
  • Pelagics Plan Team and Council Staff, 2015: Pelagic fisheries of the Western Pacific Region: 2013 annual report. NOAA, NMFS, Western Pacific Regional, Honolulu, HI, 309 pp. URL.
  • Perlwitz, J., T. Knutson, J. P. Kossin, and A. N. LeGrande, 2017: Large-Scale Circulation and Climate Variability. Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 161–184. doi:10.7930/J0RV0KVQ.
  • Piloting Climate Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health (PCCAPHH), Climate change and vector-borne disease. In Workshop on Climate Change and Vector-Borne Diseases, 10-12 February 2015 URL.
  • Poepoe, K. K., P. K. Bartram, and A. M. Friedlander, 2002: The use of traditional Hawaiian knowledge in the contemporary management of marine resources. Fisheries Centre Research Reports , 11 (1), 328–339. URL.
  • Pohnpei State, 2015: Pohnpei joint state action plan for disaster risk management and climate change. Federated States of Micronesia, 87 pp. URL.
  • Polovina, J. J., and P. A. Woodworth-Jefcoats, 2013: Fishery-induced changes in the subtropical Pacific pelagic ecosystem size structure: Observations and theory. PLOS ONE, 8 (4), e62341. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062341.
  • Polovina, J., A. J. Hobday, J. A. Koslow, and V. S. Saba, 2014: Open ocean systems. Marine Ecosystem-based Management. Fogarty, M. J., and J. J. McCarthy, Eds., Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 429–473.
  • Prouty, N. G., A. Cohen, K. K. Yates, C. D. Storlazzi, P. W. Swarzenski, and D. White, 2017: Vulnerability of coral reefs to bioerosion from land-based source of pollution. Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, 122 (12), 9319–9331. doi:10.1002/2017JC013264.
  • Quataert, E., C. Storlazzi, A. van Rooijen, O. Cheriton, and A. van Dongeren, 2015: The influence of coral reefs and climate change on wave-driven flooding of tropical coastlines. Geophysical Research Letters, 42 (15), 6407–6415. doi:10.1002/2015GL064861.
  • Ramsay, D., A. Webb, S. Abraham, R. Jackson, and B. Charley, 2000: Kosrae Shoreline Management Plan: Repositioning for Resilience, Executive Summary. National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Hamilton, NZ, 8-9 pp. URL.
  • Raymundo, L. J., D. Burdick, V. A. Lapacek, R. Miller, and V. Brown, 2017: Anomalous temperatures and extreme tides: Guam staghorn Acropora succumb to a double threat. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 564, 47–55. doi:10.3354/meps12005.
  • Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) Office of the President. Economic Policy Planning and Statistics Office, 2012: The RMI 2011 Census of Population and Housing: Summary and Highlights Only. Majuro, Marshall Islands, 23 pp. URL.
  • Reynolds, M. H., K. N. Courtot, P. Berkowitz, C. D. Storlazzi, J. Moore, and E. Flint, 2015: Will the effects of sea-level rise create ecological traps for Pacific island seabirds? PLOS ONE, 10 (9), e0136773. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0136773.
  • Reynolds, M. H., P. Berkowitz, K. N. Courtot, and C. M. Krause, Eds., 2012: Predicting Sea-Level Rise Vulnerability of Terrestrial Habitat and Wildlife of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. USGS Open-File Report 2012-1182. U.S. Geological Survey Reston, VA, 139 pp. URL.
  • Ricke, K. L., J. C. Orr, K. Schneider, and K. Caldeira, 2013: Risks to coral reefs from ocean carbonate chemistry changes in recent earth system model projections. Environmental Research Letters, 8 (3), 034003. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/3/034003.
  • RMI, 2011: National climate change policy framework. Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), 29 pp. URL.
  • RMI, 2014: Republic of the Marshall Islands joint national action plan for climate change adaptation & disaster risk management 2014-2018. Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), 56 pp. URL.
  • Romine, B. M., C. H. Fletcher, L. N. Frazer, and T. R. Anderson, 2016: Beach erosion under rising sea-level modulated by coastal geomorphology and sediment availability on carbonate reef-fringed island coasts. Sedimentology, 63 (5), 1321–1332. doi:10.1111/sed.12264.
  • Rosinski, A., W. Walsh, T. A. Oliver, I. Williams, J. Gove, K. Gorospe, C. Birkeland, D. White, and E. Conklin, 2017: Coral Bleaching Recovery Plan: Identifying Management Responses to Promote Coral Recovery in Hawai‘i. University of Hawai'i, Coral Bleaching Recovery Steering Committee, Honolulu, HI, 47 pp. URL.
  • Rotzoll, K., and C. H. Fletcher, 2013: Assessment of groundwater inundation as a consequence of sea-level rise. Nature Climate Change, 3 (5), 477–481. doi:10.1038/nclimate1725.
  • Rupic, M., L. Wetzell, J. J. Marra, and S. Salwani, 2018: 2014-2016 El Niño Assessment Report: An Overview of the Impacts of the 2014-16 El Niño on the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI). NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI), Honolulu, HI, 48 pp. URL.
  • Russell, L., 2011: Poverty, climate change and health in Pacific Island countries: Issues to consider in discussion, debate and policy development. Menzies Centre for Health Policy, University of Sydney, Australia, 43 pp. URL.
  • Savo, V., D. Lepofsky, J. P. Benner, K. E. Kohfeld, J. Bailey, and K. Lertzman, 2016: Observations of climate change among subsistence-oriented communities around the world. Nature Climate Change, 6 (5), 462–473. doi:10.1038/nclimate2958.
  • Scheff, J., and D. M. W. Frierson, 2013: Scaling potential evapotranspiration with greenhouse warming. Journal of Climate, 27 (4), 1539–1558. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00233.1.
  • Scheuchl, B., J. Mouginot, E. Rignot, M. Morlighem, and A. Khazendar, 2016: Grounding line retreat of Pope, Smith, and Kohler Glaciers, West Antarctica, measured with Sentinel-1a radar interferometry data. Geophysical Research Letters, 43 (16), 8572–8579. doi:10.1002/2016GL069287.
  • Schmidtko, S., L. Stramma, and M. Visbeck, 2017: Decline in global oceanic oxygen content during the past five decades. Nature, 542 (7641), 335–339. doi:10.1038/nature21399.
  • Senina, I., P. Lehodey, B. Calmettes, S. Nicol, S. Caillot, J. Hampton, and P. Williams, 2016: Predicting skipjack tuna dynamics and effects of climate change using SEAPODYM with fishing and tagging data. WCPFC-SC12-2016/EB WP-01. WCPFC-SC12-2016/EB WP-01. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC), Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia, 70 pp. URL.
  • Shope, J. B., C. D. Storlazzi, L. H. Erikson, and C. A. Hegermiller, 2016: Changes to extreme wave climates of islands within the western tropical Pacific throughout the 21st century under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, with implications for island vulnerability and sustainability. Global and Planetary Change, 141, 25–38. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2016.03.009.
  • Slangen, A. B. A., M. Carson, C. A. Katsman, R. S. W. van de Wal, A. Köhl, L. L. A. Vermeersen, and D. Stammer, 2014: Projecting twenty-first century regional sea-level changes. Climatic Change, 124 (1), 317–332. doi:10.1007/s10584-014-1080-9.
  • SPREP, 2013: Adapting to Climate Change in the Pacific: The PACC [Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change] Programme. Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) and United Nations Development Programme, Apia, Samoa, 42 pp. URL.
  • Stahl, S., 2010: Unprotected ground:  The plight of vanishing island nations. New York International Law Review, 23 (1), 1–52. .
  • Staples, G. W., and R. H. Cowie, Eds., 2001: Hawaii's Invasive Species: A Guide to Invasive Plants and Animals in the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu, HI, 114 pp.
  • State of Hawai‘i, 2017: Sustainable Hawaiʻi Initiative. Honolulu, HI. URL.
  • Steiner, C. E., 2015: A sea of warriors: Performing an identity of resilience and empowerment in the face of climate change in the Pacific. The Contemporary Pacific, 27 (1), 147–180. URL.
  • Stevens, L. E., R. Frankson, K. E. Kunkel, P.-S. Chu, and W. Sweet, 2017: State Climate Summary: Hawai‘i. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 149-HI. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, [Asheville, NC], 5 pp. URL.
  • Stock, C. A., J. G. John, R. R. Rykaczewski, R. G. Asch, W. W. L. Cheung, J. P. Dunne, K. D. Friedland, V. W. Y. Lam, J. L. Sarmiento, and R. A. Watson, 2017: Reconciling fisheries catch and ocean productivity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114 (8), E1441–E1449. doi:10.1073/pnas.1610238114.
  • Storlazzi, C. D., E. P. L. Elias, and P. Berkowitz, 2015: Many atolls may be uninhabitable within decades due to climate change. Scientific Reports, 5, 14546. doi:10.1038/srep14546.
  • Storlazzi, C. D., J. B. Shope, L. H. Erikson, C. A. Hergermiller, and P. L. Barnard, 2015: Future wave and wind projections for United States and United States-affiliated Pacific Islands. USGS Open-File Report 2015–1001. 426 pp. doi:10.3133/ofr20151001.
  • Storlazzi, C. D., P. Berkowitz, M. H. Reynolds, and J. B. Logan, 2013: Forecasting the impact of storm waves and sea-level rise on Midway Atoll and Laysan Island within the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument—A comparison of passive versus dynamic inundation models. USGS Open-File Report 2013–1069. U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, 78 pp. URL.
  • Strauch, A. M., C. P. Giardina, R. A. MacKenzie, C. Heider, T. W. Giambelluca, E. Salminen, and G. L. Bruland, 2017: Modeled effects of climate change and plant invasion on watershed function across a steep tropical rainfall gradient. Ecosystems, 20 (3), 583–600. doi:10.1007/s10021-016-0038-3.
  • Sutton, J., N. Luchetti, E. Wright, M. C. Kruk, and J. J. Marra, 2015: An El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) based precipitation climatology for the United States Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) using the PERSIANN Climate Data Record (CDR). NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Asheville, NC, 478 pp. URL.
  • Sweet, W. V., R. E. Kopp, C. P. Weaver, J. Obeysekera, R. M. Horton, E. R. Thieler, and C. Zervas, 2017: Global and Regional Sea Level Rise Scenarios for the United States. NOAA Tech. Rep. NOS CO-OPS 083. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Silver Spring, MD, 75 pp. URL.
  • Sweet, W. V., R. Horton, R. E. Kopp, A. N. LeGrande, and A. Romanou, 2017: Sea Level Rise. Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 333–363. doi:10.7930/J0VM49F2.
  • Taylor, M., A. McGregor, and B. Dawson, Eds., 2016: Vulnerability of Pacific Island Agriculture and Forestry to Climate Change. Noumea Cedex, New Caledonia, 559 pp. URL.
  • Tedesco, M., S. Doherty, X. Fettweis, P. Alexander, J. Jeyaratnam, and J. Stroeve, 2016: The darkening of the Greenland ice sheet: Trends, drivers, and projections (1981–2100). The Cryosphere, 10 (2), 477–496. doi:10.5194/tc-10-477-2016.
  • Terry, J. P., and A. C. Falkland, 2010: Responses of atoll freshwater lenses to storm-surge overwash in the Northern Cook Islands. Hydrogeology Journal, 18 (3), 749–759. doi:10.1007/s10040-009-0544-x.
  • The Nature Conservancy, 2017: Coral Reef Module: Overfishing and Destructive Fishing Threats. The Nature Conservancy, Reef Resilience, . URL.
  • U. N. Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) Team, 2005: Cook Islands and Tokelau: Tropical Cyclone Percy. OCHA Situation Report No. 5. U. N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Geneva, Switzerland, URL.
  • U. S. Energy Information Administration, 2018: Electricity Data Browser [web tool]. EIA, Independent Statistics & Analysis, . URL.
  • U.S. Census Bureau, 2016: Data: State Population Totals Tables: 2010-2016. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. URL.
  • UNEP, 2016: Loss and Damage: The role of Ecosystem Services. UN Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, Kenya, 70 pp. URL.
  • USGCRP, 2017: Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 470 pp. doi:10.7930/J0J964J6.
  • van Hooidonk, R., J. Maynard, J. Tamelander, J. Gove, G. Ahmadia, L. Raymundo, G. Williams, S. F. Heron, and S. Planes, 2016: Local-scale projections of coral reef futures and implications of the Paris Agreement. Scientific Reports, 6, 39666. doi:10.1038/srep39666.
  • van Oppen, M. J. H., R. D. Gates, L. L. Blackall, N. Cantin, L. J. Chakravarti, W. Y. Chan, C. Cormick, A. Crean, K. Damjanovic, H. Epstein, P. L. Harrison, T. A. Jones, M. Miller, R. J. Pears, L. M. Peplow, D. A. Raftos, B. Schaffelke, K. Stewart, G. Torda, D. Wachenfeld, A. R. Weeks, and H. M. Putnam, 2017: Shifting paradigms in restoration of the world's coral reefs. Global Change Biology, 23 (9), 3437–3448. doi:10.1111/gcb.13647.
  • Victor, S., Y. Golbuu, E. Wolanski, and R. H. Richmond, 2004: Fine sediment trapping in two mangrove-fringed estuaries exposed to contrasting land-use intensity, Palau, Micronesia. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 12 (4), 277–283. doi:10.1007/s11273-005-8319-1.
  • Vitousek, S., P. L. Barnard, C. H. Fletcher, N. Frazer, L. Erikson, and C. D. Storlazzi, 2017: Doubling of coastal flooding frequency within decades due to sea-level rise. Scientific Reports, 7 (1), 1399. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-01362-7.
  • Wagner, D., and D. Polhemus, Eds., 2016: Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment for the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. Marine Sanctuaries Conservation. Marine Sanctuaries Conservation Series ONMS-16-03. NOAA, Office of National Marine Sanctuaries Silver Spring, MD, 89 pp. URL.
  • Walter, R. P., J. D. Hogan, M. J. Blum, R. B. Gagne, E. F. Hain, J. F. Gilliam, and P. B. McIntyre, 2012: Climate change and conservation of endemic amphidromous fishes in Hawaiian streams. Endangered Species Research, 16, 261–272. doi:10.3354/esr00404.
  • Warner, K., and K. van der Geest, 2013: Loss and damage from climate change: Local-level evidence from nine vulnerable countries. International Journal of Global Warming, 5 (4), 367–386. doi:10.1504/IJGW.2013.057289.
  • Warner, K., and T. Afifi, 2014: Where the rain falls: Evidence from 8 countries on how vulnerable households use migration to manage the risk of rainfall variability and food insecurity. Climate and Development, 6 (1), 1–17. doi:10.1080/17565529.2013.835707.
  • Warner, K., C. Ehrhart, A. de Sherbinin, S. Adamo, and T. Chai-Onn, 2009: In Search of Shelter: Mapping the Effects of Climate Change on Human Migration and Displacement. Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere, Inc. (CARE), New York, NY, 26 pp. URL.
  • Wehner, M. F., J. R. Arnold, T. Knutson, K. E. Kunkel, and A. N. LeGrande, 2017: Droughts, Floods, and Wildfires. Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 231–256. doi:10.7930/J0CJ8BNN.
  • Weir, T., L. Dovey, and D. Orcherton, 2017: Social and cultural issues raised by climate change in Pacific Island countries: An overview. Regional Environmental Change, 17 (4), 1017–1028. doi:10.1007/s10113-016-1012-5.
  • Widlansky, M. J., A. Timmermann, and W. Cai, 2015: Future extreme sea level seesaws in the tropical Pacific. Science Advances, 1 (8), e1500560. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1500560.
  • Williams, T., and P. Hardison, 2013: Culture, law, risk and governance: Contexts of traditional knowledge in climate change adaptation. Climatic Change, 120 (3), 531–544. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0850-0.
  • Wongbusarakum, S., and B. Pomeroy, 2008: SEM-Pasifika: Socio-economic Monitoring Guidelines for Coastal Managers in Pacific Island Countries. Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Apia, Samoa, 137 pp. URL.
  • Woodroffe, C. D., K. Rogers, K. L. McKee, C. E. Lovelock, I. A. Mendelssohn, and N. Saintilan, 2016: Mangrove sedimentation and response to relative sea-level rise. Annual Review of Marine Science, 8 (1), 243–266. doi:10.1146/annurev-marine-122414-034025.
  • Woodworth-Jefcoats, P. A., J. J. Polovina, and J. C. Drazen, 2016: Climate change is projected to reduce carrying capacity and redistribute species richness in North Pacific pelagic marine ecosystems. Global Change Biology, 23 (3), 1000–1008. doi:10.1111/gcb.13471.
  • Woodworth-Jefcoats, P. A., J. J. Polovina, J. P. Dunne, and J. L. Blanchard, 2013: Ecosystem size structure response to 21st century climate projection: Large fish abundance decreases in the central North Pacific and increases in the California Current. Global Change Biology, 19 (3), 724–733. doi:10.1111/gcb.12076.
  • World Bank, 2016: Climate and Disaster Resilience. World Bank-Pacific Possible, Washington, DC, 67 pp. URL.
  • Wyrtki, K., 1975: El Niño—The dynamic response of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to atmospheric forcing. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 5 (4), 572–584. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1975)005<0572:ENTDRO>2.0.CO;2.
  • Zhang, C., Y. Wang, K. Hamilton, and A. Lauer, 2016: Dynamical downscaling of the climate for the Hawaiian Islands. Part II: Projection for the late twenty-first century. Journal of Climate, 29 (23), 8333–8354. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0038.1.
  • Ziegler, A. C., 2002: Hawaiian Natural History, Ecology, and Evolution. University of Hawaii Press, 477 pp.

See Full Chapter & References