Federal Coordinating Lead Author:
Bill Bartush, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Chapter Lead:
Kevin Kloesel, University of Oklahoma
Chapter Authors:
Jay Banner, University of Texas at Austin
David Brown, USDA-ARS Grazinglands Research Laboratory
Jay Lemery, University of Colorado
Xiaomao Lin, Kansas State University
Cindy Loeffler, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department
Gary McManus, Oklahoma Climatological Survey
Esther Mullens, DOI South Central Climate Adaptation Science Center
John Nielsen-Gammon, Texas A&M University
Mark Shafer, NOAA-RISA Southern Climate Impacts Planning Program
Cecilia Sorensen, University of Colorado
Sid Sperry, Oklahoma Association of Electric Cooperatives
Daniel Wildcat, Haskell Indian Nations University
Jadwiga Ziolkowska, University of Oklahoma
Review Editor:
Ellu Nasser, Adaptation International
Technical Contributor:
Katharine Hayhoe, Texas Tech University
USGCRP Coordinators:
Susan Aragon-Long, Senior Scientist
Christopher W. Avery, Senior Manager

Southern Great Plains

The Southern Great Plains, composed of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, experiences weather that is dramatic and consequential. Hurricanes, flooding, severe storms with large hail and tornadoes, blizzards, ice storms, relentless winds, heat waves, and drought—its people and economies are often at the mercy of some of the most diverse and extreme weather hazards on the planet. These events cause significant stress to existing infrastructure and socioeconomic systems and can result in significant loss of life and the loss of billions of dollars in property.

Climate conditions in the Southern Great Plains vary dramatically from the arid, high-elevation borders with the mountainous states of Colorado and New Mexico on the west, to the humid states of Missouri, Arkansas, and Louisiana in the Mississippi River valley on the east. Average annual precipitation ranges from less than 10 inches in the western reaches of the region to over 60 inches in the southeastern corner (Figure 23.1).


Figure 23.1: Monitoring Precipitation Across the Southern Great Plains

Figure 23.1: The Southern Great Plains is characterized by a pronounced east–west gradient of precipitation, with wetter conditions prevailing to the east and arid conditions to the west. Precipitation monitoring is critical in this region; state-level Mesonet station networks in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas are shown here to illustrate a key aspect of current monitoring capacity. Sources: NOAA NCEI, CICS-NC, and ERT Inc. Data from PRISM Climate group, Oregon State University, LINK, created July 10, 2010.


A large west-to-east contrast in surface water availability results, with large reservoirs in eastern parts of the region and few reservoirs in the west. Except for the Missouri River (a portion of the border for the Southern Great Plains), the Arkansas River, and the upper reaches of the rivers such as the Rio Grande, rivers in the region do not draw from mountain snowpack and are sensitive to seasonal rainfall amounts. The region is vulnerable to periods of drought, historically prevalent during the 1910s, 1930s, 1950s, and 2010–2015, and periods of abundant precipitation, particularly the 1980s and early 1990s. The region has experienced an increase in annual average temperature of 1°–2°F since the early 20th century, with the greatest warming during the winter months.

With the Gulf of Mexico to its southeast, the coastal Southern Great Plains is vulnerable to hurricanes and sea level rise. Relative sea level rise along the Texas Gulf Coast is twice as large as the global average, and an extreme storm surge in Galveston Bay would threaten much of the U.S. petroleum and natural gas refining capacity. Variations in freshwater flows and evaporation affect the salinity of bays and estuaries along the coast and have the potential to alter coastal ecosystems and affect the fishing industry. Tropical cyclones are also responsible for exceptional rainfall rates in the region. The U.S. record for greatest single-day rainfall is 43 inches, set in Alvin, Texas, in July of 1979, as Tropical Storm Claudette moved through the area. Houston, Texas, in particular, experienced several record-breaking floods in 2015, 2016, and 2017, with Hurricane Harvey rewriting the continental U.S. record for total rainfall from a tropical cyclone. Cedar Bayou, Texas (30 miles from Houston), recorded 51.88 inches of rain during the multi-day onslaught of Hurricane Harvey (see Box 23.1 for further discussion).

Over the past 50 years, significant flooding and rainfall events followed drought in approximately one-third of the drought-affected periods in the region when compared against the early part of the 20th century.10 Understanding this rapid swing from extreme drought to flood is an important and ongoing area of research in the region. As major metropolitan areas in the region continue their rapid population growth, overall exposure to extreme rainfall events will increase. Yet, even while record-breaking flooding events increased over the past 30 years, the Southern Great Plains experienced an overall decrease in flood frequency,11 possibly related to the decrease in total precipitation over the same period.

The Southern Great Plains is a critical thoroughfare for rail and road freight, supports numerous ocean and river ports within its borders, and is a major energy producer and exporter.12 Combined, the three-state region accounts for 25% of all U.S. energy production. The world’s largest oil-storage tank facility is located in Cushing, Oklahoma, with 13% of total U.S. storage and a convergence of several major pipelines. More than 550,000 miles of roads connect rural and urban communities and serve as vital infrastructure supporting state and local economies.13,14,15 The vast and dispersed nature of the region’s infrastructure makes investment in maintenance and rehabilitation of deficient and aging infrastructure difficult. Infrastructure is typically designed to withstand historical climate extremes and is exposed to the environment year-round. Therefore, as the intensity and frequency of climate-related extremes (such as heat, drought, flooding, and severe storms) increase, impacts to the region are usually adverse and costly. The Southern Great Plains ranks near the top of states with structurally deficient or functionally obsolete bridges, while other bridges are nearing the end of their design life.16,17,18 Road surface degradation in Texas urban centers is linked to an extra $5.7 billion in vehicle operating costs annually (dollar year not reported).15 The region has tens of thousands of dams and levees; however, many are not subject to regular inspection and maintenance and have an average age exceeding 40 years.16,17,18 Most state and local budgets are unable to meet the funding needs for infrastructure improvements, particularly in rural towns where funding is largely derived from municipal revenue. In urban centers, population growth is anticipated to require expansion of transportation infrastructure and services and revisions to flood control structures and policies16,17,18 and result in increased water resource needs and a growth in building demand.19,20

Understanding the potential for future changes in the frequency and severity of weather events and their impacts will ultimately determine the sustainability of economies, cultures, ecosystems, health, and life in the region. Over the past two decades, state and local governments have invested in the creation of weather monitoring networks (“Mesonets”) that are designed to measure important weather and climate parameters (Figure 23.1).21 Mesonet stations are critical infrastructure required to establish the long-term climate record for the region. Mesonet observations have been especially critical for predicting and preparing for extreme weather events like droughts, floods, ice storms, and severe convective storms, as well as for developing value-added products. These data are used daily by decision-makers, public safety officials, educational institutions, the agricultural sector, and researchers, generating societal and economic benefits that greatly exceed the investments made in these systems.22,23


Climate change is expected to lead to an increase in average temperatures as well as frequency, duration, and intensity of extreme heat events and a reduction in extreme cold events. Annual average temperatures in the Southern Great Plains are projected to increase by 3.6°–5.1°F by the mid-21st century and by 4.4°–8.4°F by the late 21st century, compared to the average for 1976–2005, and are dependent on future scenario, with higher levels of greenhouse gas emissions leading to greater and faster temperature increases. Extreme heat will become more common. Temperatures similar to the summer of 2011 will become increasingly likely to reoccur, particularly under higher scenarios. By late in the 21st century, if no reductions in emissions take place, the region is projected to experience an additional 30–60 days per year above 100°F than it does now (Figure 23.4)24.


Figure 23.4: Projected Increase in Number of Days Above 100ºF

Figure 23.4: Under both lower- and higher-scenario climate change projections, the number of days exceeding 100°F is projected to increase markedly across the Southern Great Plains by the end of the century (2070–2099 as compared to 1976–2005). Sources: NOAA NCEI and CICS-NC.


The role of climate change in altering the frequency of the types of severe weather most typically associated with the Southern Great Plains, such as severe local storms, hailstorms, and tornadoes, remains difficult to quantify.1,2 Indirect approaches suggest a possible increase in the circumstances conducive to such severe weather,3 including an increase in the instances of larger hail sizes in the region by 2040,4 but changes are unlikely to be uniform across the region, and additional research is needed.

Along the Texas coastline, sea levels have risen 5–17 inches over the last 100 years, depending on local topography and subsidence (sinking of land).25 Sea level rise along the western Gulf of Mexico during the remainder of the 21st century is likely to be greater than the projected global average of 1–4 feet or more.26 Such a change, along with the related retreat of the Gulf coastline,27 will exacerbate risks and impacts from storm surges.

Average annual precipitation projections suggest small changes in the region, with slightly wetter winters, particularly in the north of the region, and drier summers.1 However, the frequency and intensity of heavy precipitation are anticipated to continue to increase, particularly under higher scenarios and later in the century.1 The expected increase of precipitation intensity implies fewer soaking rains and more time to dry out between events, with an attendant increase in soil moisture stress. Studies that have attempted to simulate the consequences of future precipitation patterns consistently project less future soil moisture, with future conditions possibly drier than anything experienced by the region during at least the past 1,000 years.28

While past hydrologic extremes have been driven largely by climate variability, climate change is likely to exacerbate aridity in the Southern Great Plains, largely associated with drying soils due to increased evapotranspiration caused by higher temperatures.1,29

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