Federal Coordinating Lead Author:
William A. Gould, USDA Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Chapter Lead:
Ernesto L. Diaz, Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, Coastal Zone Management Program
Chapter Authors:
Nora L. Álvarez-Berríos, USDA Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Felix Aponte-González, Aponte, Aponte & Asociados
Wayne Archibald, Archibald Energy Group
Jared Heath Bowden, Department of Applied Ecology, North Carolina State University
Lisamarie Carrubba, NOAA Fisheries, Office of Protected Resources
Wanda Crespo, Estudios Técnicos
Stephen Joshua Fain, USDA Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Grizelle González, USDA Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Annmarie Goulbourne, Environmental Solutions Limited
Eric Harmsen, Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, University of Puerto Rico
Azad Henareh Khalyani, Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University
Eva Holupchinski, USDA Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry
James P. Kossin, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Amanda J. Leinberger, Center for Climate Adaptation Science and Solutions, University of Arizona
Vanessa I. Marrero-Santiago, Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, Coastal Zone Management Program
Odalys Martínez-Sánchez, NOAA National Weather Service
Kathleen McGinley, USDA Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Melissa Meléndez Oyola, University of New Hampshire
Pablo Méndez-Lázaro, University of Puerto Rico
Julio Morrell, University of Puerto Rico
Isabel K. Parés-Ramos, USDA Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Roger Pulwarty, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
William V. Sweet, NOAA National Ocean Service
Adam Terando, U.S. Geological Survey, Southeast Climate Adaptation Science Center
Sigfredo Torres-González, U.S. Geological Survey (Retired)
Review Editor:
Jess K. Zimmerman, University of Puerto Rico
Technical Contributors:
Mariano Argüelles, Puerto Rico Department of Agriculture
Gabriela Bernal-Vega, University of Puerto Rico
Roberto Moyano, Estudios Técnicos Inc.
Pedro Nieves, USVI Coastal Zone Management
Aurelio Mercado-Irizarry, University of Puerto Rico
Dominique Davíd-Chavez, Colorado State University
Rey Rodríguez, Puerto Rico Department of Agriculture
USGCRP Coordinators:
Allyza Lustig, Program Coordinator
Apurva Dave, International Coordinator and Senior Analyst
Christopher W. Avery, Senior Manager

U.S. Caribbean

REFERENCES

  • 2011-2015: 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. URL.
  • 2018: Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF): Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands Dynamical Downscaled Climate Change Projections. doi:10.5066/F7GB23BW.
  • Acevedo, S., A. Cebotari, and T. Turner-Jones, 2013: Caribbean small states: Challenges of high debt and low growth. International Monetary Fund, Washington, D.C., 22 pp. URL.
  • Agricultural Statistics Division, 2018: Pérdidas por sector agrícola: Estimados realizados en base al SEPA (Sistema de Emergencia para la Agricultura) [Agricultural Losses by Product: Preliminary Estimates Based on SEPA]. Puerto Rico Department of Agriculture, San Juan, PR. URL.
  • ALERT Worldwide, 2017: Hurricane Maria [web site]. AIR Worldwide, Boston, MA,  accessed March 27, 2018. URL.
  • Andersson, A. J., and D. Gledhill, 2013: Ocean acidification and coral reefs: Effects on breakdown, dissolution, and net ecosystem calcification. Annual Review of Marine Science, 5 (1), 321–348. doi:10.1146/annurev-marine-121211-172241.
  • Anthony, K. R. N., J. A. Maynard, G. Diaz-Pulido, P. J. Mumby, P. A. Marshall, L. Cao, and O. V. E. Hoegh-Guldberg, 2011: Ocean acidification and warming will lower coral reef resilience. Global Change Biology, 17 (5), 1798–1808. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02364.x.
  • Aponte-Gonzalez, F., 2014: Concerning Caribbean Climate Change Vulnerabilities and Adaptation in Small Island Cities Ph.D., Planning and Environmental Management, University of Manchester, 372 pp. URL.
  • Barker, D., 2012: Caribbean agriculture in a period of global change: Vulnerabilities and opportunities. Caribbean Studies, 40 (2), 41–61. doi:10.1353/crb.2012.0027.
  • Barreto, M., D. Narvaéz, L. Marti, E. Díaz, O. Santaella, N. Cabrera, T. Gladik, Z. Alvira, L. Silva, and A. Reyes, 2017: Assessment of beach morphology at Puerto Rico Island. University of Puerto Rico, Planning School, Rio Piedras, PR, 58 pp. URL.
  • Bates, N. R., M. H. P. Best, K. Neely, R. Garley, A. G. Dickson, and R. J. Johnson, 2012: Detecting anthropogenic carbon dioxide uptake and ocean acidification in the North Atlantic Ocean. Biogeosciences, 9 (7), 2509–2522. doi:10.5194/bg-9-2509-2012.
  • Berg, M. P., E. T. Kiers, G. Driessen, M. Van Der Heijden, B. W. Kooi, F. Kuenen, M. Liefting, H. A. Verhoef, and J. Ellers, 2010: Adapt or disperse: Understanding species persistence in a changing world. Global Change Biology, 16 (2), 587–598. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02014.x.
  • Bhardwaj, A., V. Misra, A. Mishra, A. Wootten, R. Boyles, J. H. Bowden, and A. J. Terando, 2018: Downscaling future climate change projections over Puerto Rico using a non-hydrostatic atmospheric model. Climatic Change, 147 (1), 133–147. doi:10.1007/s10584-017-2130-x.
  • Biasutti, M., A. H. Sobel, S. J. Camargo, and T. T. Creyts, 2012: Projected changes in the physical climate of the Gulf Coast and Caribbean. Climatic Change, 112 (3), 819–845. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0254-y.
  • Birchenough, S. N. R., 2017: Impacts of climate change on biodiversity in the coastal and marine environments of Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS). CME Caribbean Marine Climate Change Report Card 2017: Science Review 2017., Commonwealth Marine Economies (CME) Programme, UK, 40–51. URL.
  • Bolin, B., 1960: On the Exchange of Carbon Dioxide between the Atmosphere and the Sea. Tellus, 12 (3), 274–281. doi:10.1111/j.2153-3490.1960.tb01311.x.
  • Boulon, R., The, Acropora, and Biological Review Team, 2005: Atlantic Acropora Status Review Document. Report to National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Regional Office. 152 + App. pp. URL.
  • Boyer, T. P., J. I. Antonov, O. K. Baranova, C. Coleman, H. E. Garcia, A. Grodsky, D. R. Johnson, R. A. Locarnini, A. V. Mishonov, T. D. O'Brien, C. R. Paver, J. R. Reagan, D. Seidov, I. V. Smolyar, and M. M. Zweng, 2013: World ocean database 2013. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 72. NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center, Silver Spring, MD, 208 pp. doi:10.7289/V5NZ85MT.
  • Brainard, R. E., C. Birkeland, C. M. Eakin, P. McElhany, M. W. Miller, M. Patterson, and G. A. Piniak, 2011: Status Review Report of 82 Candidate Coral Species Petitioned Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS‐PIFSC‐27. U.S. Department of Commerce , 530 pp. URL.
  • Brandeis, T. J., E. H. Helmer, H. Marcano-Vega, and A. E. Lugo, 2009: Climate shapes the novel plant communities that form after deforestation in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Forest Ecology and Management, 258 (7), 1704–1718. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2009.07.030.
  • Brander, K., 2010: Impacts of climate change on fisheries. Journal of Marine Systems, 79 (3), 389–402. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.12.015.
  • Brander, L., and P. van Beukering, 2013: The Total Economic Value of U.S. Coral Reefs: A Review of the Literature. NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program, Silver Spring, MD, 23 pp. URL.
  • Brown, M. E., J. M. Antle, P. Backlund, E. R. Carr, W. E. Easterling, M. K. Walsh, C. Ammann, W. Attavanich, C. B. Barrett, M. F. Bellemare, V. Dancheck, C. Funk, K. Grace, J. S. I. Ingram, H. Jiang, H. Maletta, T. Mata, A. Murray, M. Ngugi, D. Ojima, B. O'Neill, and C. Tebaldi, 2015: Climate Change, Global Food Security, and the U.S. Food System. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 146 pp. doi:10.7930/J0862DC7.
  • Campbell, J. D., M. A. Taylor, T. S. Stephenson, R. A. Watson, and F. S. Whyte, 2011: Future climate of the Caribbean from a regional climate model. International Journal of Climatology, 31 (12), 1866–1878. doi:10.1002/joc.2200.
  • Campisano, A., D. Butler, S. Ward, M. J. Burns, E. Friedler, K. DeBusk, L. N. Fisher-Jeffes, E. Ghisi, A. Rahman, H. Furumai, and M. Han, 2017: Urban rainwater harvesting systems: Research, implementation and future perspectives. Water Research, 115, 195–209. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2017.02.056.
  • Cashman, A., L. Nurse, and C. John, 2010: Climate change in the Caribbean: The water management implications. Journal of Environment & Development, 19 (1), 42–67. doi:10.1177/1070496509347088.
  • Cazenave, A., and G. L. Cozannet, 2014: Sea level rise and its coastal impacts. Earth's Future, 2 (2), 15–34. doi:10.1002/2013EF000188.
  • CCCCC, 2011: Delivering Transformational Change: The Implementation Plan for the CARICOM “Regional Framework for Achieving Development Resilient to Climate Change.” Technical Report 5C/CCCCC-12-03-01. Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC), Belmopan, Belize, 211 pp. URL.
  • CCCCC, 2015: Impact assessment and national adaptation strategy and action plan to address climate change in the tourism sector of Saint Lucia. Volumes I and II. Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC), Belmopan, Belize, 188 pp. URL.
  • CEHI, 2006: A Programme for Promoting Rainwater Harvesting in the Caribbean Region. Caribbean Environmental Health Institute (CEHI), Castries, St. Lucia, 38 pp. URL.
  • CEHI, 2009: Rainwater: Catch it while you can. A handbook on rainwater harvesting in the Caribbean. Caribbean Environmental Health Institute (CEHI), Castries, St. Lucia, 55 pp. URL.
  • CFMC, 2015: Comprehensive Amendment to the U.S. Caribbean Fishery Management Plans: Application of Accountability Measures (Including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact review, regulatory flexibility act analysis, and fishery impact statement), version 3.1. Caribbean Fishery Management Council (CFMC) and NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, San Juan, PR, and St. Petersburg, FL, 122 pp. URL.
  • Chun, B., and J. M. Guldmann, 2014: Spatial statistical analysis and simulation of the urban heat island in high-density central cities. Landscape and Urban Planning, 125, 76–88. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.01.016.
  • Cinner, J. E., T. R. McClanahan, N. A. J. Graham, T. M. Daw, J. Maina, S. M. Stead, A. Wamukota, K. Brown, and Ö. Bodin, 2012: Vulnerability of coastal communities to key impacts of climate change on coral reef fisheries. Global Environmental Change, 22 (1), 12–20. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.09.018.
  • Comas Pagan, M., 2009: Vulnerabilidad de las cadenas de suministros, el cambio climático y el desarrollo de estrategias de adaptación: El caso de las cadenas de suministros de alimento de Puerto Rico Ph.D., International Business Program, University of Puerto Rico, various pp. URL.
  • CoRIS, 2018: The Coral Program's Watershed Management Activities [web site]. NOAA Coral Reef Information System (CoRIS), . URL.
  • Crespo Acevedo, W. I., and R. Moyano Flores, 2017: Using geographical informaiton systems to estimate population in special flood hazards areas and coastal lands and structures that will be affected by sea level rise in Puerto Rico. Estudios Técnicos, Inc., Hato Rey, PR, 7 pp. URL.
  • Dalling, J. W., K. Heineman, G. González, and R. Ostertag, 2016: Geographic, environmental and biotic sources of variation in the nutrient relations of tropical montane forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 32 (5), 368–383. doi:10.1017/S0266467415000619.
  • David-Chavez, D. M., 2018: Intergenerational research on Indigenous agricultural knowledge, climate resilience, and food security in the Caribbean. Global Change Forum. Raleigh, NC. URL.
  • Donner, S. D., T. R. Knutson, and M. Oppenheimer, 2007: Model-based assessment of the role of human-induced climate change in the 2005 Caribbean coral bleaching event. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104 (13), 5483–5488. doi:10.1073/pnas.0610122104.
  • DRNA, 2016: Informe sobre la Sequía de 2014-2016 en Puerto Rico. Departamento de Recursos Naturales y Ambientales (DRNA), División Monitoreo del Plan de Aguas, San Juan, PR, 89 pp. URL.
  • DRNA, 2016: Plan Integral de Recursos de Agua de Puerto Rico, 2016: Políticas, Proyectos, Objectivos. CEE-SA-16-11450. Departamento de Recursos Naturales y Ambientales (DRNA), División Monitoreo del Plan de Aguas, San Juan, PR, [various] pp. URL.
  • Dulvy, N. K., S. I. Rogers, S. Jennings, V. Stelzenmüller, S. R. Dye, and H. R. Skjoldal, 2008: Climate change and deepening of the North Sea fish assemblage: A biotic indicator of warming seas. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45 (4), 1029–1039. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01488.x.
  • Eakin, C. M., J. A. Morgan, S. F. Heron, T. B. Smith, G. Liu, L. Alvarez-Filip, B. Baca, E. Bartels, C. Bastidas, C. Bouchon, M. Brandt, A. W. Bruckner, L. Bunkley-WIlliams, A. Cameron, B. D. Causey, M. Chiappone, T. R. L. Christensen, M. J. C. Crabbe, O. Day, E. de la Guardia, G. Díaz-Pulido, D. Di Resta, D. L. Gil-Agudelo, D. S. Gilliam, R. N. Ginsburg, S. Gore, H. M. Guzmán, J. C. Hendee, E. A. Hernández-Delgado, E. Husain, C. F. G. Jeffrey, R. J. Jones, E. Jordán-Dahlgren, L. S. Kaufman, D. I. Kline, P. A. Kramer, J. C. Lang, D. Lirman, J. Mallela, C. Manfrino, J.-P. Maréchal, K. Marks, J. Mihaly, W. J. Miller, E. M. Mueller, E. M. Muller, C. A. Orozco Toro, H. A. Oxenford, D. Ponce-Taylor, N. Quinn, K. B. Ritchie, S. Rodríguez, A. Rodríguez Ramírez, S. Romano, J. F. Samhouri, J. A. Sánchez, G. P. Schmahl, B. V. Shank, W. J. Skirving, S. C. C. Steiner, E. Villamizar, S. M. Walsh, C. Walter, E. Weil, E. H. Williams, K. W. Roberson, and Y. Y., 2010: Caribbean corals in crisis: Record thermal stress, bleaching, and mortality in 2005. PLoS ONE, 5 (11), e13969. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013969.
  • EPA, 2002: A lexicon of cave and karst terminology with special reference to environmental karst hydrology. EPA/600/R-02/003. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC, 214 pp. URL.
  • EPA, 2017: Multi-model Framework for Quantitative Sectoral Impacts Analysis: A Technical Report for the Fourth National Climate Assessment. EPA 430‐R‐17‐001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC, 271 pp. URL.
  • ESL, 2015: The Regional Training Workshops in the Conduct of Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment (VCA) Studies in Caribbean Countries. Final report. Environmental Solutions Limited (ESL), Kingston, Jamaica, 70 pp. URL.
  • Ewel, J. J., and J. L. Whitmore, 1973: The Ecological Life Zones of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Forest Service Research Paper ITF-018. USDA Forest Service, Institute of Tropical Forestry, Rio Piedras, PR, 72 pp. URL.
  • Fain, S. J., M. Quiñones, N. L. Álvarez-Berríos, I. K. Parés-Ramos, and W. A. Gould, 2018: Climate change and coffee: Assessing vulnerability by modeling future climate suitability in the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. Climatic Change, 146 (1), 175–186. doi:10.1007/s10584-017-1949-5.
  • FAO, 2016: Drought characteristics and management in the Caribbean. FAO Water Reports 42. Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology and FAO, St James, Barbados and Rome, 36 pp. URL.
  • Farrell, D. A., 2012: Climate services and disaster risk reduction in the Caribbean. Climate ExChange., Tudor Rose (for World Meteorological Organization), Leicester, UK, 143–146.
  • FCC, 2017: Order FCC 17-129, in the matter of Connect America Fund [WC Docket No. 10-90]. Federal Communication Commission (FCC), Washington, DC, 12 pp. URL.
  • FEMA, 2017: Initial Hazus wind loss estimates for Hurricane Maria using the ARA wind field. FEMA HAZUS Program, various pp. URL.
  • Foster, P., 2001: The potential negative impacts of global climate change on tropical montane cloud forests. Earth-Science Reviews, 55 (1), 73–106. doi:10.1016/S0012-8252(01)00056-3.
  • Friedrich, O., R. Schiebel, P. A. Wilson, S. Weldeab, C. J. Beer, M. J. Cooper, and J. Fiebig, 2012: Influence of test size, water depth, and ecology on Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, δ18 O and δ13 C in nine modern species of planktic foraminifers. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 319320, 133–145. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2011.12.002.
  • Gledhill, D. K., R. Wanninkhof, F. J. Millero, and M. Eakin, 2008: Ocean acidification of the Greater Caribbean Region 1996–2006. Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, 113 (C10), C10031. doi:10.1029/2007JC004629.
  • González, J. E., M. Georgescu, M. C. Lemos, N. Hosannah, and D. Niyogi, 2017: Climate change's pulse is in Central America and the Caribbean. Eos, Earth & Space Science News, 98 doi:10.1029/2017EO071975.
  • Gould, W. A., S. J. Fain, I. K. Pares, K. McGinley, A. Perry, and R. F. Steele, 2015: Caribbean Regional Climate Sub Hub Assessment of Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies. USDA Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry, Rio Piedras, PR, 67 pp. URL.
  • Government of Puerto Rico, 2017: Build Back Better: Puerto Rico. Request for Federal Assistance for Disaster Recovery. Government of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR, 107 pp. URL.
  • Harduar Morano, L., S. Watkins, and K. Kintziger, 2016: A comprehensive evaluation of the burden of heat-related illness and death within the Florida population. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13 (6), 551. doi:10.3390/ijerph13060551.
  • Harduar Morano, L., T. L. Bunn, M. Lackovic, A. Lavender, G. T. T. Dang, J. J. Chalmers, Y. Li, L. Zhang, and D. D. Flammia, 2015: Occupational heat-related illness emergency department visits and inpatient hospitalizations in the southeast region, 2007–2011. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 58 (10), 1114–1125. doi:10.1002/ajim.22504.
  • Harmsen, E. W., N. L. Miller, N. J. Schlegel, and J. E. Gonzalez, 2009: Seasonal climate change impacts on evapotranspiration, precipitation deficit and crop yield in Puerto Rico. Agricultural Water Management, 96 (7), 1085–1095. doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2009.02.006.
  • Harmsen, E. W., S. E. G. Mesa, E. Cabassa, N. D. Ramírez-Beltran, S. C. Pol, R. J. Kuligowski, and R. Vasquez, 2008: Satellite sub-pixel rainfall variability. WSEAS Transaction on Signal Processing, 4 (8), 504–513. URL.
  • Hayhoe, K., 2013: Quantifying key drivers of climate variability and change for Puerto Rico and the Caribbean. Texas Tech University, [Lubbock, TX], various pp. URL.
  • He, J., and B. J. Soden, 2016: A re-examination of the projected subtropical precipitation decline. Nature Climate Change, 7, 53. doi:10.1038/nclimate3157.
  • Helmreich, B., and H. Horn, 2009: Opportunities in rainwater harvesting. Desalination, 248 (1), 118–124. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2008.05.046.
  • Henareh Khalyani, A., W. A. Gould, E. Harmsen, A. Terando, M. Quinones, and J. A. Collazo, 2016: Climate change implications for tropical islands: Interpolating and interpreting statistically downscaled GCM projections for management and planning. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 55 (2), 265–282. doi:10.1175/jamc-d-15-0182.1.
  • Hoegh-Guldberg, O., P. J. Mumby, A. J. Hooten, R. S. Steneck, P. Greenfield, E. Gomez, C. D. Harvell, P. F. Sale, A. J. Edwards, K. Caldeira, N. Knowlton, C. M. Eakin, R. Iglesias-Prieto, N. Muthiga, R. H. Bradbury, A. Dubi, and M. E. Hatziolos, 2007: Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. Science, 318 (5857), 1737–1742. doi:10.1126/science.1152509.
  • Jacobs, K. R., and A. I. Pérez, 2013: Assessing the San Juan Bay Estuary Program's Vulnerabilities to Climate Change. San Juan Bay Estuary Program, San Juan, PR, various pp. URL.
  • Jennings, S., and K. Brander, 2010: Predicting the effects of climate change on marine communities and the consequences for fisheries. Journal of Marine Systems, 79 (3), 418–426. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.12.016.
  • Jewett, L., and A. Romanou, 2017: Ocean Acidification and Other Ocean Changes. Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 364–392. doi:10.7930/J0QV3JQB.
  • Joglar, R. L., Ed., 2005: Biodiversidad de Puerto Rico: Vertebrados terrestres y ecosistemas. Editorial del Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña, San Juan, PR,.
  • Jury, M. R., S. Chiao, and E. W. Harmsen, 2009: Mesoscale structure of trade wind convection over Puerto Rico: Composite observations and numerical simulation. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 132 (2), 289–313. doi:10.1007/s10546-009-9393-3.
  • Karmalkar, A. V., M. A. Taylor, J. Campbell, T. Stephenson, M. New, A. Centella, A. Benzanilla, and J. Charlery, 2013: A review of observed and projected changes in climate for the islands in the Caribbean. Atmósfera, 26 (2), 283–309. doi:10.1016/S0187-6236(13)71076-2.
  • Kondolf, G. M., Y. Gao, G. W. Annandale, G. L. Morris, E. Jiang, J. Zhang, Y. Cao, P. Carling, K. Fu, Q. Guo, R. Hotchkiss, C. Peteuil, T. Sumi, H.-W. Wang, Z. Wang, Z. Wei, B. Wu, C. Wu, and C. T. Yang, 2014: Sustainable sediment management in reservoirs and regulated rivers: Experiences from five continents. Earth's Future, 2 (5), 256–280. doi:10.1002/2013EF000184.
  • Kossin, J. P., 2017: Hurricane intensification along U. S. coast suppressed during active hurricane periods. Nature, 541, 390–393. doi:10.1038/nature20783.
  • Kossin, J. P., and D. J. Vimont, 2007: A more general framework for understanding Atlantic hurricane variability and trends. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 88 (11), 1767–1781. doi:10.1175/bams-88-11-1767.
  • Kossin, J. P., T. Hall, T. Knutson, K. E. Kunkel, R. J. Trapp, D. E. Waliser, and M. F. Wehner, 2017: Extreme Storms. Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 257–276. doi:10.7930/J07S7KXX.
  • Kuniansky, E. L., and J. M. Rodriguez, 2010: Effects of Changes in Irrigation Practices and Aquifer Development on Groundwater Discharge to the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve near Salinas, Puerto Rico. Scientific Investigations Report 2010–5022. U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, 106 pp. URL.
  • Kuniansky, E. L., F. Gómez-Gómez, and S. Torres-González, 2004: Effects of aquifer development and changes in irrigation practices on ground-water availability in the Santa Isabel area, Puerto Rico. Water-Resources Investigations Report 2003–4303. U.S. Geological Survey, Caribean District, Guaynabo, PR, 56 pp. URL.
  • Larsen, M. C., 2000: Analysis of 20th century rainfall and streamflow to characterize drought and water resources in Puerto Rico. Physical Geography, 21 (6), 494–521. doi:10.1080/02723646.2000.10642723.
  • Laurance, W. F., D. Carolina Useche, L. P. Shoo, S. K. Herzog, M. Kessler, F. Escobar, G. Brehm, J. C. Axmacher, I. C. Chen, L. A. Gámez, P. Hietz, K. Fiedler, T. Pyrcz, J. Wolf, C. L. Merkord, C. Cardelus, A. R. Marshall, C. Ah-Peng, G. H. Aplet, M. del Coro Arizmendi, W. J. Baker, J. Barone, C. A. Brühl, R. W. Bussmann, D. Cicuzza, G. Eilu, M. E. Favila, A. Hemp, C. Hemp, J. Homeier, J. Hurtado, J. Jankowski, G. Kattán, J. Kluge, T. Krömer, D. C. Lees, M. Lehnert, J. T. Longino, J. Lovett, P. H. Martin, B. D. Patterson, R. G. Pearson, K. S. H. Peh, B. Richardson, M. Richardson, M. J. Samways, F. Senbeta, T. B. Smith, T. M. A. Utteridge, J. E. Watkins, R. Wilson, S. E. Williams, and C. D. Thomas, 2011: Global warming, elevational ranges and the vulnerability of tropical biota. Biological Conservation, 144 (1), 548–557. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2010.10.010.
  • Lawton, R. O., U. S. Nair, R. A. Pielke, and R. M. Welch, 2001: Climatic impact of tropical lowland deforestation on nearby montane cloud forests. Science, 294 (5542), 584–587. doi:10.1126/science.1062459.
  • Lugo, A. E., A. García-Martinó, and F. Quiñones-Márquez, 2011: Cartilla Del Agua Para Puerto Rico. Acto Cientifica, 25 (1–3), 138. URL.
  • López, F. J., 2016: Resource challenges at San Juan National Historic Site. In Annual Meeting of the SFC CESU, Biscayne National Park, FL. URL.
  • Manteghi, G., H. bin limit, and D. Remaz, 2015: Water bodies an urban microclimate: A review. Modern Applied Science, 9 (6) doi:10.5539/mas.v9n6p1.
  • McField, M., 2017: Impacts of climate change on coral in the coastal and marine environments of Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS). CME Caribbean Marine Climate Change Report Card 2017: Science Review 2017., Commonwealth Marine Economies (CME) Programme, UK, 52–59. URL.
  • McLean, N. M., T. S. Stephenson, M. A. Taylor, and J. D. Campbell, 2015: Characterization of future Caribbean rainfall and temperature extremes across rainfall zones. Advances in Meteorology, 2015, Art. 425987. doi:10.1155/2015/425987.
  • Meehl, G. A., C. Covey, K. E. Taylor, T. Delworth, R. J. Stouffer, M. Latif, B. McAvaney, and J. F. B. Mitchell, 2007: THE WCRP CMIP3 multimodel dataset: A new era in climate change research. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 88 (9), 1383–1394. doi:10.1175/bams-88-9-1383.
  • Meléndez, E., and J. Hinojosa, 2017: Estimates of post Hurricane Maria exodus from Puerto Rico. Centro RB2017-01. CUNY Hunter College, Center for Puerto Rican Studies (Centro), New York, NY, 7 pp. URL.
  • Mimura, N., L. Nurse, R. F. McLean, J. Agard, L. Briguglio, P. Lefale, R. Payet, G. Sem, W. Agricole, K. Ebi, D. Forbes, J. Hay, R. Pulwarty, T. Nakalevu, and K. Takahashi, 2007: Ch. 16: Small islands. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Parry, M. L., O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, and C. E. Hanson, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 687–716.
  • Monmany, A. C., W. A. Gould, M. J. Andrade-Núñez, G. González, and M. Quiñones, 2017: 77–95, doi:10.5772/67667. doi:10.5772/67667.
  • Monnereau, I., and H. A. Oxenford, 2017: Impacts of climate change on fisheries in the coastal and marine environments of Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS). CME Caribbean Marine Climate Change Report Card 2017: Science Review 2017., Commonwealth Marine Economies (CME) Programme, UK, 124–154. URL.
  • Morabito, M., A. Crisci, B. Gioli, G. Gualtieri, P. Toscano, V. Di Stefano, S. Orlandini, and G. F. Gensini, 2015: Urban-hazard risk analysis: Mapping of heat-related risks in the elderly in major Italian cities. PLOS ONE, 10 (5), e0127277. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0127277.
  • Morton, J. F., 2007: The impact of climate change on smallholder and subsistence agriculture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104 (50), 19680–19685. doi:10.1073/pnas.0701855104.
  • Munich RE, 2017: Overview of Natural Catastrophe Figures for 2016 [web site]. Munich, Germany. URL.
  • Méndez-Lázaro, P. A., C. M. Pérez-Cardona, E. Rodríguez, O. Martínez, M. Taboas, A. Bocanegra, and R. Méndez-Tejeda, 2016: Climate change, heat, and mortality in the tropical urban area of San Juan, Puerto Rico. International Journal of Biometeorology, doi:10.1007/s00484-016-1291-z.
  • Méndez-Lázaro, P., F. E. Muller-Karger, D. Otis, M. J. McCarthy, and E. Rodríguez, 2017: A heat vulnerability index to improve urban public health management in San Juan, Puerto Rico. International Journal of Biometeorology, doi:10.1007/s00484-017-1319-z.
  • Méndez-Lázaro, P., O. Martínez-Sánchez, R. Méndez-Tejeda, E. Rodríguez, E. Morales, and N. S. Cortijo, 2015: Extreme heat events in San Juan Puerto Rico: Trends and variability of unusual hot weather and its possible effects on ecology and society . Journal of Climatology & Weather Forecasting, 3, 135. doi:10.4172/2332-2594.1000135.
  • NASA, 2017: Global Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet [web page]. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA. URL.
  • NCEI, 2018: Climate Data Online [web tool]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI), Asheville, NC. URL.
  • NDMC, 2015: U.S. Drought Monitor: Puerto Rico (August 11, 2015) [web image]. National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC), Lincoln, NE. URL.
  • Neelin, J. D., M. Münnich, H. Su, J. E. Meyerson, and C. E. Holloway, 2006: Tropical drying trends in global warming models and observations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103 (16), 6110–6115. doi:10.1073/pnas.0601798103.
  • NMFS, 2016: Management Plan for Caribbean Acropora Population Enhancement. NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Southeast Regional Office, St. Petersburg, FL, 35 pp. URL.
  • NOAA Office for Coastal Management, 2016: Describing the Ocean Economies of the U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico [web site]. NOAA Office for Coastal Management, Silver Spring, MD. URL.
  • Nurse, L. A., R. F. McLean, J. Agard, L. P. Briguglio, V. Duvat-Magnan, N. Pelesikoti, E. Tompkins, and A. Webb, 2014: Small islands. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part B: Regional Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change. Barros, V. R., C. B. Field, D. J. Dokken, M. D. Mastrandrea, K. J. Mach, T. E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K. L. Ebi, Y. O. Estrada, R. C. Genova, B. Girma, E. S. Kissel, A. N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P. R. Mastrandrea, and L. L. White, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1613–1654.
  • NWS, 2013: Rainfall record San Juan: Tropical wave brought new climate records. NOAA National Weather Service (NWS), San Juan, PR,  accessed July 6, 2018. URL.
  • NWS, 2018: 2017 Summary of Hazardous Weather Fatalities, Injuries, and Damage Costs by State. NOAA National Weather Service (NWS), Silver Spring, MD, 1 pp. URL.
  • NWS, 2018: Average Rainfall Statistics: San Juan, PR. NOAA National Weather Service (NWS), San Juan, PR. URL.
  • NY Power Authority, Puerto Rico Electic Power Authority, and Others, 2017: Build back better: Reimagining and strengthening the power grid of Puerto Rico. New York, various pp. URL.
  • Ortiz-Colón, G., S. J. Fain, I. K. Parés, J. Curbelo-Rodríguez, E. Jiménez-Cabán, M. Pagán-Morales, and W. A. Gould, 2018: Assessing climate vulnerabilities and adaptive strategies for resilient beef and dairy operations in the tropics. Climatic Change, 146 (1), 47–58. doi:10.1007/s10584-017-2110-1.
  • Palla, A., I. Gnecco, and P. La Barbera, 2017: The impact of domestic rainwater harvesting systems in storm water runoff mitigation at the urban block scale. Journal of Environmental Management, 191, 297–305. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.01.025.
  • Pecl, G. T., M. B. Araújo, J. D. Bell, J. Blanchard, T. C. Bonebrake, I.-C. Chen, T. D. Clark, R. K. Colwell, F. Danielsen, B. Evengård, L. Falconi, S. Ferrier, S. Frusher, R. A. Garcia, R. B. Griffis, A. J. Hobday, C. Janion-Scheepers, M. A. Jarzyna, S. Jennings, J. Lenoir, H. I. Linnetved, V. Y. Martin, P. C. McCormack, J. McDonald, N. J. Mitchell, T. Mustonen, J. M. Pandolfi, N. Pettorelli, E. Popova, S. A. Robinson, B. R. Scheffers, J. D. Shaw, C. J. B. Sorte, J. M. Strugnell, J. M. Sunday, M.-N. Tuanmu, A. Vergés, C. Villanueva, T. Wernberg, E. Wapstra, and S. E. Williams, 2017: Biodiversity redistribution under climate change: Impacts on ecosystems and human well-being. Science, 355 (6332), eaai9214. doi:10.1126/science.aai9214.
  • Pendleton, L., A. Comte, C. Langdon, J. A. Ekstrom, S. R. Cooley, L. Suatoni, M. W. Beck, L. M. Brander, L. Burke, J. E. Cinner, C. Doherty, P. E. T. Edwards, D. Gledhill, L.-Q. Jiang, R. J. van Hooidonk, L. Teh, G. G. Waldbusser, and J. Ritter, 2016: Coral reefs and people in a high-CO2 world: Where can science make a difference to people? PLOS ONE, 11 (11), e0164699. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0164699.
  • Perez, T. M., J. T. Stroud, and K. J. Feeley, 2016: Thermal trouble in the tropics. Science, 351 (6280), 1392–1393. doi:10.1126/science.aaf3343.
  • Perlwitz, J., T. Knutson, J. P. Kossin, and A. N. LeGrande, 2017: Large-Scale Circulation and Climate Variability. Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 161–184. doi:10.7930/J0RV0KVQ.
  • Perry, C. T., G. N. Murphy, P. S. Kench, S. G. Smithers, E. N. Edinger, R. S. Steneck, and P. J. Mumby, 2013: Caribbean-wide decline in carbonate production threatens coral reef growth. Nature Communications, 4, Art. 1402. doi:10.1038/ncomms2409.
  • PRASA, 2011: Fiscal Year 2010 Consulting Engineer's Report for the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority. Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA), Hato Rey, PR, various pp. URL.
  • PRASA, 2014: Fiscal Year 2013 Consulting Engineer's Report for the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority. Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA), Hato Rey, PR, various pp. URL.
  • PRASA, 2015: Cambio Climático Plan de  Adaptación–Tarea 3 [Climate Change Adaptation Plan]. Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA), Hato Rey, PR, various pp. URL.
  • Puerto Rico Climate Change Council, 2013: Puerto Rico's State of the Climate 2010-2013: Assessing Puerto Rico's Social-Ecological Vulnerabilities in a Changing Climate. Puerto Rico Coastal Zone Management Program, San Juan, PR, 316 pp. URL.
  • Puerto Rico Climate Change Council, 2013: Working Group 2 report: Ecology and biodiversity. Puerto Rico's State of the Climate 2010-2013: Assessing Puerto Rico's Social-Ecological Vulnerabilities in a Changing Climate. Jacobs, K. R., L. Carrubba, and E. L. Díaz, Eds., Puerto Rico Coastal Zone Management Program, Department of Natural and Environmental Resources and NOAA Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, San Juan, PR, 85–250. URL.
  • Puerto Rico Coastal Zone Management Program, 2017: Riesgos Costeros [Coastal Hazards]. Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources (DRNA in Spanish), San Juan, PR. URL.
  • Puerto Rico National Parks Company, 2013: Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan (SCORP) for Puerto Rico 2013-2018. Puerto Rico National Parks Company (CPNPR in Spanish), San Juan, PR,.
  • Puerto Rico Planning Board, 2017: Apéndice Estadístico Informe Económico al Gobernador y a la Asamblea Legislativa [Statistical Appendix of the Economic Report to the Governor and to the Legislative Assembly] 2016. Puerto Rico Planning Board, San Juan, PR, 86 pp. URL.
  • Puerto Rico Ports Authority, 2016: Aviation Bureau Report Fiscal Year 2016. San Juan, PR,.
  • Puerto Rico State Department, 2016: Ordenes Ejecutivas [Executive Orders: Search/Buscar “OE-2016-048”]. San Juan, PR. 22 November 2016. URL.
  • Puerto Rico State Department, 2018: Ordenes Ejecutivas [Executive Orders: Search/Buscar “estado de emergencia”]. San Juan, PR. [various dates]. URL.
  • Pulwarty, R. S., L. A. Nurse, and U. O. Trotz, 2010: Caribbean islands in a changing climate. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 52 (6), 16–27. doi:10.1080/00139157.2010.522460.
  • Quiñones, M., I. K. Parés-Ramos, W. A. Gould, G. Gonzalez, K. McGinley, and P. Ríos, 2018: El Yunque National Forest Atlas. Gen. Tech. Rep. IITF-GTR-47. USDA Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry, San Juan, PR, 63 pp. URL.
  • Ray, D. K., R. M. Welch, R. O. Lawton, and U. S. Nair, 2006: Dry season clouds and rainfall in northern Central America: Implications for the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. Global and Planetary Change, 54 (1), 150–162. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2005.09.004.
  • Rhein, M., S. R. Rintoul, S. Aoki, E. Campos, D. Chambers, R. A. Feely, S. Gulev, G. C. Johnson, S. A. Josey, A. Kostianoy, C. Mauritzen, D. Roemmich, L. D. Talley, and F. Wang, 2013: Observations: Ocean. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Stocker, T. F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, and P. M. Midgley, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 255–316. URL.
  • Rinner, C., and M. Hussain, 2011: Toronto's urban heat island—Exploring the relationship between land use and surface temperature. Remote Sensing, 3 (6), 1251–1265. doi:10.3390/rs3061251.
  • Ruiz-Ramos, M., and G. Ortiz-Colón, 2018: El Huracán María y su efecto sobre la industria lechera de Puerto Rico. SEA del Oeste, 2018 (1), 43–51. URL.
  • Runkle, J., K. E. Kunkel, L. Stevens, S. Champion, D. Easterling, A. Terrando, L. Sun, and B. C. Stewart, 2017: State Climate Summaries: Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 149-PRUSVI. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Asheville, NC, 4 pp. URL.
  • Ryu, J.-H., and K. Hayhoe, 2014: Understanding the sources of Caribbean precipitation biases in CMIP3 and CMIP5 simulations. Climate Dynamics, 42 (11), 3233–3252. doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1801-1.
  • Sadovy, Y., and M. Domeier, 2005: Are aggregation-fisheries sustainable? Reef fish fisheries as a case study. Coral Reefs, 24 (2), 254–262. doi:10.1007/s00338-005-0474-6.
  • Scatena, F. N., 1998: An assessment of climate change in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. In Tropical Hydrology and Caribbean Water Resources: Proceedings, Third International Symposium on Tropical Hydrology and Fifth Caribbean Islands Water Resources Congress, 12-16 July, San Juan, PR., 193–198. URL.
  • Selig, E. R., C. Drew Harvell, J. F. Bruno, B. L. Willis, C. A. Page, K. S. Casey, and H. Sweatman, 2013: Analyzing the relationship between ocean temperature anomalies and coral disease outbreaks at broad spatial scales. Coral Reefs and Climate Change: Science and Management. T. Phinney, J., O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. Kleypas, W. Skirving, and A. Strong, Eds., American Geophysical Union, 111–128. doi:10.1029/61CE07.
  • Shultz, J. M., J. P. Kossin, J. M. Shepherd, J. M. Ransdell, R. Walshe, I. Kelman, and S. Galea, 2018: Risk, health consequences, and response challenges for small-island-based populations: Observations from the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 1–13. doi:10.1017/dmp.2018.28.
  • Snover, A. K., L. Binder, J. Lopez, E. Willmott, J. Kay, R. Sims, M. Wyman, M. Hentschel, and A. Strickler, 2007: Preparing for Climate Change: A Guidebook for Local, Regional, and State Governments. ICLEI-Local Governments for Sustainability, Oakland, CA, URL.
  • Sobel, A. H., C. D. Burleyson, and S. E. Yuter, 2011: Rain on small tropical islands. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116 (D8), D08102. doi:10.1029/2010JD014695.
  • Soler-López, L. R., and N. A. Licha-Soler, 2005: Sedimentation survey of Lago Loíza, Puerto Rico, January 2004. Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5239. U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, 26 pp. URL.
  • Soler-López, L. R., and N. A. Licha-Soler, 2012: Sedimentation survey of Lago Loíza, Trujillo Alto, Puerto Rico, July 2009. Scientific Investigations Map 3219. U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, 1 pp. doi:10.3133/sim3219.
  • Sou, G., and F. Aponte-González, 2017: Making it count after Irma and María: Household relief and recovery in Puerto Rico. Universtiy of Manchester, Humanitarian and Conflict Response Institute, Mancehster, UK, 5 pp. URL.
  • Spalding, M. D., S. Ruffo, C. Lacambra, I. Meliane, L. Z. Hale, C. C. Shepard, and M. W. Beck, 2014: The role of ecosystems in coastal protection: Adapting to climate change and coastal hazards. Ocean & Coastal Management, 90, 50–57. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.09.007.
  • Stocking, M. A., 2003: Tropical soils and food security: The next 50 years. Science, 302 (5649), 1356–1359. doi:10.1126/science.1088579.
  • Sweet, W. V., R. E. Kopp, C. P. Weaver, J. Obeysekera, R. M. Horton, E. R. Thieler, and C. Zervas, 2017: Global and Regional Sea Level Rise Scenarios for the United States. NOAA Tech. Rep. NOS CO-OPS 083. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Silver Spring, MD, 75 pp. URL.
  • Taylor, M. A., L. A. Clarke, A. Centella, A. Bezanilla, T. S. Stephenson, J. J. Jones, J. D. Campbell, A. Vichot, and J. Charlery, 2018: Future Caribbean climates in a world of rising temperatures: The 1.5 vs 2.0 dilemma. Journal of Climate, 31 (7), 2907–2926. doi:10.1175/jcli-d-17-0074.1.
  • Taylor, M. A., T. S. Stephenson, A. A. Chen, and Kimberly A. Stephenson, 2012: Climate change and Caribbean: Review and response. Caribbean Studies, 40 (2), 169–200. doi:10.1353/crb.2012.0020.
  • Thornton, P. K., P. J. Ericksen, M. Herrero, and A. J. Challinor, 2014: Climate variability and vulnerability to climate change: A review. Global Change Biology, 20 (11), 3313–3328. doi:10.1111/gcb.12581.
  • Tomlinson, C. J., L. Chapman, J. E. Thornes, and C. J. Baker, 2011: Including the urban heat island in spatial heat health risk assessment strategies:  A case study for Birmingham, UK. International Journal of Health Geographics, 10 (1), 42. doi:10.1186/1476-072x-10-42.
  • Torres-Gonzalez, S., and J. M. Rodriguez, 2016: Hydrologic conditions in the South Coast aquifer, Puerto Rico, 2010–15. Open-File Report 2015-1215. U. S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, doi:10.3133/ofr20151215.
  • Trotman, A., A. Joyette, C. Van Meerbeeck, R. Mahon, S.-A. Cox, N. Cave, and D. Farrell, 2017: Drought risk management in the Caribbean community: Early warning information and other risk reduction considerations. Drought and Water Crises: Integrating Science, Management, and Policy. Wilhite, D., and R. S. Pulwarty, Eds., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 431–450.
  • UN-OHRLLS, 2011: Small Island Developing States: Small Islands Big(ger) Stakes. Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (UN-OHRLLS), New York, NY, 28 pp. URL.
  • UNEP, 2015: Collaborating for Resilience—Partnerships That Build Disaster-Resilient Communities and Economies. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Finance Initiative, Geneva, Switzerland, 42 pp. URL.
  • USACE, 2017: Sea-Level Change Curve Calculator (Version 2017.55) [web tool]. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, . URL.
  • USGCRP, 2016: The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 312 pp. doi:10.7930/J0R49NQX.
  • USGCRP, 2017: Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 470 pp. doi:10.7930/J0J964J6.
  • Van Beusekom, A. E., G. González, and M. A. Scholl, 2017: Analyzing cloud base at local and regional scales to understand tropical montane cloud forest vulnerability to climate change. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17 (11), 7245–7259. doi:10.5194/acp-17-7245-2017.
  • Van Beusekom, A. E., W. A. Gould, A. J. Terando, and J. A. Collazo, 2016: Climate change and water resources in a tropical island system: Propagation of uncertainty from statistically downscaled climate models to hydrologic models. International Journal of Climatology, 36 (9), 3370–3383. doi:10.1002/joc.4560.
  • van Gerwen, I., 2013: The effects of trap fisheries on the populations of Caribbean spiny lobster and reef fish species at the Saba Bank M.Sc., Animal Sciences Group, Aquaculture and Fisheries Group, Wageningen University, 66 pp. URL.
  • Venti, A., A. Andersson, and C. Langdon, 2014: Multiple driving factors explain spatial and temporal variability in coral calcification rates on the Bermuda platform. Coral Reefs, 33 (4), 979–997. doi:10.1007/s00338-014-1191-9.
  • Virgin Islands State Historic Preservation Office, and University of Alabama Office of Archaeological Research, 2016: The U.S. Virgin Islands Statewide Historic Preservation Plan. University of Alabama, Office of Archaeological Research, Moundville, AL, 50 pp. URL.
  • Walsh, K. J. E., J. L. McBride, P. J. Klotzbach, S. Balachandran, S. J. Camargo, G. Holland, T. R. Knutson, J. P. Kossin, T. Lee, A. Sobel, and M. Sugi, 2016: Tropical cyclones and climate change. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 7 (1), 65–89. doi:10.1002/wcc.371.
  • Wilkinson, E., 2018: Towards a more resilient Caribbean after the 2017 hurricanes. Report from roundtable discussions, 30 January 2018. Overseas Development Institute, London, UK, 6 pp. URL.
  • Wilson, R., 2017: Impacts of climate change on mangrove ecosystems in the coastal and marine environments of Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS). CME Caribbean Marine Climate Change Report Card 2017: Science Review 2017., Commonwealth Marine Economies (CME) Programme, UK, 60–82. URL.
  • Wong, P. P., I. J. Losada, J.-P. Gattuso, J. Hinkel, A. Khattabi, K. L. McInnes, Y. Saito, and A. Sallenger, 2014: Coastal systems and low-lying areas. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Field, C. B., V. R. Barros, D. J. Dokken, K. J. Mach, M. D. Mastrandrea, T. E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K. L. Ebi, Y. O. Estrada, R. C. Genova, B. Girma, E. S. Kissel, A. N. Levy, S. MacCracken, and P. R. Mastrandrea, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 361–409. URL.
  • Wootten, A., J. H. Bowden, R. Boyles, and A. Terando, 2016: The sensitivity of WRF downscaled precipitation in Puerto Rico to cumulus parameterization and interior grid nudging. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 55 (10), 2263–2281. doi:10.1175/jamc-d-16-0121.1.
  • Yang, B., F. Meng, X. Ke, and C. Ma, 2015: The impact analysis of water body landscape pattern on urban heat island: A case study of Wuhan City. Advances in Meteorology, 2015, Art. 416728. doi:10.1155/2015/416728.
  • Zervas, C., 2009: Sea level variations of the United States 1854-2006. NOAA Technical Report NOS CO-OPS 053. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Silver Spring, MD, various pp. URL.
  • Zhang, X., L. Alexander, G. C. Hegerl, P. Jones, A. K. Tank, T. C. Peterson, B. Trewin, and F. W. Zwiers, 2011: Indices for monitoring changes in extremes based on daily temperature and precipitation data. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 2 (6), 851–870. doi:10.1002/wcc.147.
  • Álvarez-Berríos, N. L., S. Soto-Bayó, E. Holupchinski, S. J. Fain, and W. A. Gould, 2018: Correlating drought conservation practices and drought vulnerability in a tropical agricultural system. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 1–13. doi:10.1017/S174217051800011X.

See Full Chapter & References