Federal Coordinating Lead Author:
William A. Gould, USDA Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Chapter Lead:
Ernesto L. Diaz, Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, Coastal Zone Management Program
Chapter Authors:
Nora L. Álvarez-Berríos, USDA Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Felix Aponte-González, Aponte, Aponte & Asociados
Wayne Archibald, Archibald Energy Group
Jared Heath Bowden, Department of Applied Ecology, North Carolina State University
Lisamarie Carrubba, NOAA Fisheries, Office of Protected Resources
Wanda Crespo, Estudios Técnicos
Stephen Joshua Fain, USDA Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Grizelle González, USDA Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Annmarie Goulbourne, Environmental Solutions Limited
Eric Harmsen, Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, University of Puerto Rico
Azad Henareh Khalyani, Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University
Eva Holupchinski, USDA Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry
James P. Kossin, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Amanda J. Leinberger, Center for Climate Adaptation Science and Solutions, University of Arizona
Vanessa I. Marrero-Santiago, Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, Coastal Zone Management Program
Odalys Martínez-Sánchez, NOAA National Weather Service
Kathleen McGinley, USDA Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Melissa Meléndez Oyola, University of New Hampshire
Pablo Méndez-Lázaro, University of Puerto Rico
Julio Morrell, University of Puerto Rico
Isabel K. Parés-Ramos, USDA Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Roger Pulwarty, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
William V. Sweet, NOAA National Ocean Service
Adam Terando, U.S. Geological Survey, Southeast Climate Adaptation Science Center
Sigfredo Torres-González, U.S. Geological Survey (Retired)
Review Editor:
Jess K. Zimmerman, University of Puerto Rico
Technical Contributors:
Mariano Argüelles, Puerto Rico Department of Agriculture
Gabriela Bernal-Vega, University of Puerto Rico
Roberto Moyano, Estudios Técnicos Inc.
Pedro Nieves, USVI Coastal Zone Management
Aurelio Mercado-Irizarry, University of Puerto Rico
Dominique Davíd-Chavez, Colorado State University
Rey Rodríguez, Puerto Rico Department of Agriculture
USGCRP Coordinators:
Allyza Lustig, Program Coordinator
Apurva Dave, International Coordinator and Senior Analyst
Christopher W. Avery, Senior Manager

U.S. Caribbean

Historically, the U.S. Caribbean region has experienced relatively stable seasonal rainfall patterns, moderate annual temperature fluctuations, and a variety of extreme weather events, such as tropical storms, hurricanes, and drought. However, the Caribbean climate is changing and is projected to be increasingly variable as levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere increase.

The high percentage of coastal area relative to the total island land area in the U.S. Caribbean means that a large proportion of the region’s people, infrastructure, and economic activity are vulnerable to sea level rise, more frequent intense rainfall events and associated coastal flooding, and saltwater intrusion. High levels of exposure and sensitivity to risk in the U.S. Caribbean region are compounded by a low level of adaptive capacity, due in part to the high costs of mitigation and adaptation measures relative to the region’s gross domestic product, particularly when compared to continental U.S. coastal areas.1 The limited geographic and economic scale of Caribbean islands means that disruptions from extreme climate-related events, such as droughts and hurricanes, can devastate large portions of local economies and cause widespread damage to crops, water supplies, infrastructure, and other critical resources and services.1

The U.S. Caribbean territories of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) have distinct differences in topography, language, population size, governance, natural and human resources, and economic capacity. However, both are highly dependent on natural and built coastal assets; service-related industries account for more than 60% of the USVI economy. Beaches, affected by sea level rise and erosion, are among the main tourist attractions. In Puerto Rico, critical infrastructure (for example, drinking water pipelines and pump stations, sanitary pipelines and pump stations, wastewater treatment plants, and power plants) is vulnerable to the effects of sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding. In the USVI, infrastructure and historical buildings in the inundation zone for sea level rise include the power plants on both St. Thomas and St. Croix; schools; housing communities; the towns of Charlotte Amalie, Christiansted, and Frederiksted; and pipelines for water and sewage.

Climate change will likely result in water shortages due to an overall decrease in annual rainfall, a reduction in ecosystem services, and increased risks for agriculture, human health, wildlife, and socioeconomic development in the U.S. Caribbean. These shortages would result from some locations within the Caribbean experiencing longer dry seasons and shorter, but wetter, wet seasons in the future.2,3,4,5,6,7,8 Extended dry seasons are projected to increase fire likelihood.9,10 Excessive rainfall, coupled with poor construction practices, unpaved roads, and steep slopes, can exacerbate erosion rates and have adverse effects on reservoir capacity, water quality, and nearshore marine habitats.

Ocean warming poses a significant threat to the survival of corals and will likely also cause shifts in associated habitats that compose the coral reef ecosystem. Severe, repeated, or prolonged periods of high temperatures leading to extended coral bleaching can result in colony death. Ocean acidification also is likely to diminish the structural integrity of coral habitats. Studies show that major shifts in fisheries distribution and changes to the structure and composition of marine habitats adversely affect food security, shoreline protection, and economies throughout the Caribbean.

In Puerto Rico, the annual number of days with temperatures above 90°F has increased over the last four and a half decades. During that period, stroke and cardiovascular disease, which are influenced by such elevated temperatures, became the primary causes of death.11,12 Increases in average temperature and in extreme heat events will likely have detrimental effects on agricultural operations throughout the U.S. Caribbean region.13,14 Many farmers in the tropics, including the U.S. Caribbean, are considered small-holding, limited resource farmers and often lack the resources and/or capital to adapt to changing conditions.15

Most Caribbean countries and territories share the need to assess risks, enable actions across scales, and assess changes in ecosystems to inform decision-making on habitat protection under a changing climate.16,17 U.S. Caribbean islands have the potential to improve adaptation and mitigation actions by fostering stronger collaborations with Caribbean initiatives on climate change and disaster risk reduction.


Observed and Projected Sea Level Rise

(top) Observed sea level rise trends in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands reflect an increase in sea level of about 0.08 inches (2.0 mm) per year for the period 1962–2017 for Puerto Rico and for 1975–2017 for the U.S. Virgin Islands. The bottom panels show a closer look at more recent trends from 2000 to 2017 that measure a rise in sea level of about 0.24 inches (6.0 mm) per year. Projections of sea level rise are shown under three different scenarios of Intermediate-Low (1–2 feet), Intermediate (3–4 feet), and Extreme (9–11 feet) sea level rise. The scenarios depict the range of future sea level rise based on factors such as global greenhouse gas emissions and the loss of glaciers and ice sheets. From Figure 20.6. (Sources: NOAA NCEI and CICS-NC).

Climate Risk Management Organizations


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Some of the organizations working on climate risk assessment and management in the Caribbean are shown. Joint regional efforts to address climate challenges include the implementation of adaptation measures to reduce natural, social, and economic vulnerabilities, as well as actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. From Figure 20.18 (Sources: NOAA and the USDA Caribbean Climate Hub).

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