Federal Coordinating Lead Author:
Adam Terando, U.S. Geological Survey, Southeast Climate Adaptation Science Center
Chapter Lead:
Lynne Carter, Louisiana State University
Chapter Authors:
Kirstin Dow, University of South Carolina
Kevin Hiers, Tall Timbers Research Station
Kenneth E. Kunkel, North Carolina State University
Aranzazu Lascurain, North Carolina State University
Doug Marcy, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Michael Osland, U.S. Geological Survey
Paul Schramm, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Review Editor:
Alessandra Jerolleman, Jacksonville State University
Technical Contributors:
Vincent Brown, Louisiana State University
Barry Keim, Louisiana State University
Julie K. Maldonado, Livelihoods Knowledge Exchange Network
Colin Polsky, Florida Atlantic University
April Taylor, Chickasaw Nation
USGCRP Coordinators:
Allyza Lustig, Program Coordinator
Matthew Dzaugis, Program Coordinator
Natalie Bennett, Adaptation and Assessment Analyst


Throughout the southeastern United States, the impacts of sea level rise, increasing temperatures, extreme heat events, heavy precipitation, and decreased water availability continue to have numerous consequences for human health, the built environment, and the natural world. This assessment builds on the above concerns described in the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA3) and includes impacts to urban and rural landscapes as well as natural systems. The impacts from these changes are becoming visible as 1) flooding increases stress on infrastructure, ecosystems, and populations; 2) warming temperatures affect human health and bring about temporal and geographic shifts in the natural environment and landscapes; and 3) wildfires and growing wildfire risk create challenges for natural resource managers and impacted communities.


Figure 19.1: Historical Changes in Hot Days and Warm Nights

Figure 19.1: Sixty-one percent of major Southeast cities are exhibiting some aspects of worsening heat waves, which is a higher percentage than any other region of the country.12 Hot days and warm nights together impact human comfort and health and result in the need for increased cooling efforts. Agriculture is also impacted by a lack of nighttime cooling. Variability and change in (top) the annual number of hot days and (bottom) warm nights are shown. The bar charts show averages over the region by decade for 1900–2016, while the maps show the trends for 1950–2016 for individual weather stations. Average summer temperatures during the most recent 10 years have been the warmest on record, with very large increases in nighttime temperatures and more modest increases in daytime temperatures, as indicated by contrasting changes in hot days and warm nights. (top left) The annual number of hot days (maximum temperature above 95°F) has been lower since 1960 than the average during the first half of the 20th century; (top right) trends in hot days since 1950 are generally downward except along the south Atlantic coast and in Florida due to high numbers during the 1950s but have been slightly upward since 1960, following a gradual increase in average daytime maximum temperatures during that time. (bottom left) Conversely, the number of warm nights (minimum temperature above 75°F) has doubled on average compared to the first half of the 20th century and (bottom right) locally has increased at most stations. Sources: NOAA NCEI and CICS-NC.


The Southeast includes vast expanses of coastal and inland low-lying areas, the southern (and highest) portion of the Appalachian Mountains, numerous high-growth metropolitan areas, and large rural expanses. Embedded in these land- and seascapes is a rich cultural history developed over generations by the many communities that call this region home. However, these beaches and bayous, fields and forests, and cities and small towns are all at risk from a changing climate. These risks vary in type and magnitude from place to place, and while some climate change impacts, such as sea level rise and extreme downpours, are being acutely felt now, others, like increasing exposure to dangerously high temperatures—often accompanied by high humidity—and new local diseases, are expected to become more significant in the coming decades. While all regional residents and communities are potentially at risk for some impacts, some communities or populations are at greater risk due to their locations, services available, and economic situations. In fact, a recent economic study using a higher scenario (RCP8.5)11 suggests that the southern and midwestern populations are likely to suffer the largest losses from projected climate changes in the United States. According to the article, “[b]ecause losses are largest in regions that are already poorer on average, climate change tends to increase preexisting inequality in the United States.”11 Understanding the demographic and socioeconomic composition of racial and ethnic groups in the region is important, because these characteristics are associated with health risk factors, disease prevalence, and access to care, which in turn may influence the degree of impact from climate-related threats.

Historical Climate and Possible Future Climates

The Southeast region experienced high annual average temperatures in the 1920s and 1930s, followed by cooler temperatures until the 1970s. Since then, annual average temperatures have warmed to levels above the 1930s; the decade of the 2010s through 2017 has been warmer than any previous decade (App. 5: FAQs, Figure A5.14), both for average daily maximum and average daily minimum temperature. Seasonal warming has varied. The decade of the 2010s through 2017 is the warmest in all seasons for average daily minimum temperature and in winter and spring for average daily maximum temperature. However, for average daily maximum temperature, the summers of the 1930s and 1950s and the falls of the 1930s were warmer on average. The southeastern United States is one of the few regions in the world that has experienced little overall warming of daily maximum temperatures since 1900. The reasons for this have been the subject of much research, and hypothesized causes include both human and natural influences.13,14,15,16,17 However, since the early 1960s, the Southeast has been warming at a similar rate as the rest of the United States (Ch. 2: Climate, Figure 2.4). During the 2010s, the number of nights with minimum temperatures greater than 75°F was nearly double the long-term average for 1901–1960 (Figure 19.1), while the length of the freeze-free season was nearly 1.5 weeks greater than any other period in the historical record (Figure 19.2). These increases were widespread across the region and can have important effects on both humans and the natural environment.18 By contrast, the number of days above 95°F has been lower since 1960 compared to the pre-1960 period, with the highest numbers occurring in the 1930s and 1950s, both periods of severe drought (Figure 19.1). The differing trends in hot days and warm nights reflect the seasonal differences in average daily maximum and average daily minimum temperature trends.


Figure 19.2: Historical Change in Freeze-Free Season Length

Figure 19.2: The figure shows the variability and change in the length of the freeze-free season. (left) The bar chart shows differences in the length of the freeze-free season by decade (1900–2016) as compared to the long-term average for the Southeast. (right) The map shows trends over 1950–2016 for individual weather stations. The length of the freeze-free season has increased at most stations, particularly since the 1980s. Sources: NOAA NCEI and CICS-NC.


The number of extreme rainfall events is increasing. For example, the number of days with 3 or more inches of precipitation has been historically high over the past 25 years, with the 1990s, 2000s, and 2010s ranking as the decades with the 1st, 3rd, and 2nd highest number of events, respectively (Figure 19.3). More than 70% of precipitation recording locations show upward trends since 1950, although there are downward trends at many stations along and southeast of the Appalachian Mountains and in Florida (Figure 19.3).


Figure 19.3: Historical Change in Heavy Precipitation

Figure 19.3: The figure shows variability and change in (left) the annual number of days with precipitation greater than 3 inches (1900–2016) averaged over the Southeast by decade and (right) individual station trends (1950–2016). The number of days with heavy precipitation has increased at most stations, particularly since the 1980s. Sources: NOAA NCEI and CICS-NC.


Climate model simulations of future conditions project increases in temperature and extreme precipitation for both lower and higher scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5; see Figure 19.5).13,19 After the middle of the 21st century, however, the projected increases are lower for the lower scenario (RCP4.5). Much larger changes are simulated by the late 21st century under the higher scenario (RCP8.5), which most closely tracks with our current consumption of fossil fuels. Under the higher scenario, nighttime minimum temperatures above 75°F and daytime maximum temperatures above 95°F become the summer norm and nights above 80°F and days above 100°F, now relatively rare occurrences, become commonplace. Cooling degree days (a measure of the need for air conditioning [cooling] based on daily average temperatures rising above a standard temperature—often 65°F) nearly double, while heating degree days (a measure of the need for heating) decrease by over a third (Figure 19.22). The freeze-free season lengthens by more than a month, and the frequency of freezing temperatures decreases substantially.20,21

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