Federal Coordinating Lead Author:
Rachael Novak, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs
Chapter Lead:
Lesley Jantarasami, Oregon Department of Energy
Chapter Authors:
Roberto Delgado, National Institutes of Health
Elizabeth Marino, Oregon State University-Cascades
Shannon McNeeley, North Central Climate Adaptation Science Center and Colorado State University
Chris Narducci, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Julie Raymond-Yakoubian, Kawerak, Inc.
Loretta Singletary, University of Nevada, Reno
Kyle Powys Whyte, Michigan State University
Review Editor:
Karen Cozzetto, Northern Arizona University
USGCRP Coordinators:
Susan Aragon-Long, Senior Scientist
Allyza Lustig, Program Coordinator

Tribes and Indigenous Peoples


  • Akinbami, L. J., J. E. Moorman, C. Bailey, H. S. Zahran, M. King, C. A. Johnson, and X. Liu, 2012: Trends in Asthma Prevalence, Health Care Use, and Mortality in the United States, 2001–2010. NCHS Data Brief. No. 94, May 2012. NCHS Data Brief No. 94, May 2012. National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD, 8 pp. URL.
  • Alexander, C., N. Bynum, E. Johnson, U. King, T. Mustonen, P. Neofotis, N. Oettlé, C. Rosenzweig, C. Sakakibara, V. Shadrin, M. Vicarelli, J. Waterhouse, and B. Weeks, 2011: Linking indigenous and scientific knowledge of climate change. BioScience, 61 (6), 477–484. doi:10.1525/bio.2011.61.6.10.
  • Anderson, T. L., and B. Leonard, 2016: Institutions and the wealth of Indian nations. Unlocking the Wealth of Indian Nations. Anderson, T. L., Ed., Lexington Books, Lanham, MD, 3–17.
  • Anderson, T. L., B. Leonard, D. P. Parker, and S. Regan, 2016: Natural resources on American Indian Reservations: blessing  or curse? Unlocking the Wealth of Indian Nations. Anderson, T. L., Ed., Lexington Books, Lanham, MD, 18–37.
  • Anisimov, O. A., D. G. Vaughan, T. V. Callaghan, C. Furgal, H. Marchant, T. D. Prowse, H. Vilhjálmsson, and J. E. Walsh, 2007: Polar regions (Arctic and Antarctic). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Parry, M. L., O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, and C. E. Hanson, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, New York, USA, 653–685.
  • Arbuthnott, K., S. Hajat, C. Heaviside, and S. Vardoulakis, 2016: Changes in population susceptibility to heat and cold over time: Assessing adaptation to climate change. Environmental Health, 15 (Suppl 1), 73–93. doi:10.1186/s12940-016-0102-7.
  • Bailey, Z. D., N. Krieger, M. Agénor, J. Graves, N. Linos, and M. T. Bassett, 2017: Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: Evidence and interventions. The Lancet, 389 (10077), 1453–1463. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30569-X.
  • Barreca, A., K. Clay, O. Deschenes, M. Greenstone, and J. S. Shapiro, 2016: Adapting to climate change: The remarkable decline in the US temperature-mortality relationship over the twentieth century. Journal of Political Economy, 124 (1), 105–159. doi:10.1086/684582.
  • Bennett, T. M. B., N. G. Maynard, P. Cochran, R. Gough, K. Lynn, J. Maldonado, G. Voggesser, S. Wotkyns, and K. Cozzetto, 2014: Ch. 12: Indigenous peoples, lands, and resources. Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment. Melillo, J. M., T. (T. C. . Richmond, and G. W. Yohe, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 297–317. doi:10.7930/J09G5JR1.
  • Bronen, R., 2011: Climate-induced community relocations: Creating an adaptive governance framework based in human rights doctrine. New York University Review of Law & Social Change, 35, 357–408. URL.
  • Bronen, R., 2015: Climate-induced community relocations: Using integrated social-ecological assessments to foster adaptation and resilience. Ecology and Society, 20 (3) doi:10.5751/ES-07801-200336.
  • Bronen, R., J. Maldonado, E. Marino, and P. Hardison, 2018: Climate change and displacement: Challenges and needs to address an imminent reality. Challenging the Prevailing Paradigm of Displacement and Resettlement: Risks, Impoverishment, Legacies, Solutions. M. Cernea, M., and J. K. Maldonado, Eds., Routledge, 252–272.
  • Browne, C. V., L. S. Ka'opua, L. L. Jervis, R. Alboroto, and M. L. Trockman, 2017: United States indigenous populations and dementia: Is there a case for culture-based psychosocial interventions? The Gerontologist, 57 (6), 1011–1019. doi:10.1093/geront/gnw059.
  • Brubaker, M., K. Zweifel, J. Demir, and A. Shannon, 2015: Climate change in the Bering Strait region: Observations and lessons from seven communities. Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage, AK, 58 pp. URL.
  • Burkett, V., and M. Davidson, 2012: Coastal Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerabilities: A Technical Input to the 2013 National Climate Assessment. Island Press, Washington, D.C., 216 pp.
  • Castrodale, L., 2015: Paralytic shellfish poisoning — Alaska, 1993–2014. [State of Alaska] Epidemiology Bulletin, 2015 (1), 1. URL.
  • Chief, K., A. Meadow, and K. Whyte, 2016: Engaging southwestern tribes in sustainable water resources topics and management. Water, 8 (8), 350. doi:10.3390/w8080350.
  • Chief, K., J. J. Daigle, K. Lynn, and K. P. Whyte, 2014: Indigenous experiences in the U.S. with climate change and environmental stewardship in the Anthropocene. In Forest Conservation and Management in the Anthropocene : Conference Proceedings, 161–176. URL.
  • Cho, P., L. S. Geiss, N. R. Burrows, D. L. Roberts, A. K. Bullock, and M. E. Toedt, 2014: Diabetes-related mortality among American Indians and Alaska Natives, 1990–2009. American Journal of Public Health, 104 (S3), S496–S503. doi:10.2105/ajph.2014.301968.
  • Clayton, S., C. M. Manning, and C. Hodge, 2014: Beyond Storms & Droughts: The Psychological Impacts of Climate Change. American Psychological Association and ecoAmerica, Washington, D.C., 51 pp. URL.
  • Cochran, P., O. H. Huntington, C. Pungowiyi, S. Tom, F. S. Chapin III, H. P. Huntington, N. G. Maynard, and S. F. Trainor, 2013: Indigenous frameworks for observing and responding to climate change in Alaska. Climatic Change, 120 (3), 557–567. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0735-2.
  • Colby, B. G., J. E. Thorson, and S. Britton, 2005: Negotiating Tribal Water Rights: Fullfilling Promises in the Arid West. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ,.
  • Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, 2013: Climate Change Strategic Plan: Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes. Pablo, MT, 71 pp. URL.
  • Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, 2015: Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment. CTUIR-DOSE, Pendleton, OR, 79 pp. URL.
  • Cosens, B., 2012: The legacy of Winters v. United States and the Winters Doctrine, one hundred years later. The Future of Indian and Federal Reserved Water Rights: The Winters Centennial. Cosens, B., and J. V. Royster, Eds., University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM, 5–21.
  • Cosens, B., and B. Chaffin, 2016: Adaptive governance of water resources shared with Indigenous Peoples: The role of law. Water, 8 (3), 97. doi:10.3390/w8030097.
  • Cozzetto, K., K. Chief, K. Dittmer, M. Brubaker, R. Gough, K. Souza, F. Ettawageshik, S. Wotkyns, S. Opitz-Stapleton, S. Duren, and P. Chavan, 2013: Climate change impacts on the water resources of American Indians and Alaska Natives in the U.S. Climatic Change, 120 (3), 569–584. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0852-y.
  • Cozzetto, K., K. Chief, K. Dittmer, M. Brubaker, R. Gough, K. Souza, F. Ettawageshik, S. Wotkyns, S. Opitz-Stapleton, S. Duren, and P. Chavan, 2013: Supplemental material: Climate change impacts on the water resources of American Indians and Alaska Natives in the U.S. Climatic Change, 120 (3), 569–584. URL.
  • Cunsolo Willox, A., E. Stephenson, J. Allen, F. Bourque, A. Drossos, S. Elgarøy, M. J. Kral, I. Mauro, J. Moses, T. Pearce, J. P. MacDonald, and L. Wexler, 2015: Examining relationships between climate change and mental health in the Circumpolar North. Regional Environmental Change, 15 (1), 169–182. doi:10.1007/s10113-014-0630-z.
  • Cunsolo Willox, A., S. L. Harper, V. L. Edge, K. Landman, K. Houle, J. D. Ford, and R. I. C. Government, 2013: The land enriches the soul: On climatic and environmental change, affect, and emotional health and well-being in Rigolet, Nunatsiavut, Canada. Emotion, Space and Society, 6, 14–24. doi:10.1016/j.emospa.2011.08.005.
  • Dalton, M. M., P. Mote, and A. K. Snover, Eds., 2013: Climate Change in the Northwest: Implications for Our Landscapes, Waters, And Communities. Island Press, Washington, D.C., 224 pp.
  • Dangendorf, S., M. Marcos, G. Wöppelmann, C. P. Conrad, T. Frederikse, and R. Riva, 2017: Reassessment of 20th century global mean sea level rise. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114 (23), 5946–5951. doi:10.1073/pnas.1616007114.
  • David-Chavez, D. M., 2018: Intergenerational research on Indigenous agricultural knowledge, climate resilience, and food security in the Caribbean. Global Change Forum. Raleigh, NC. URL.
  • Deol, S., 2017: The Effects of Water Quantification on Tribal Economies: Evidence from the Western U.S. Reservations M.S., Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Arizona, 111 pp. URL.
  • Dittmer, K., 2013: Changing streamflow on Columbia basin tribal lands—Climate change and salmon. Climatic Change, 120 (3), 627–641. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0745-0.
  • Diver, S., 2018: Native water protection flows through self-determination: Understanding tribal water quality standards and “Treatment as a State.” Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education, 163 (1), 6–30. doi:10.1111/j.1936-704X.2018.03267.x.
  • Dodgen, D., D. Donato, N. Kelly, A. La Greca, J. Morganstein, J. Reser, J. Ruzek, S. Schweitzer, M. M. Shimamoto, K. Thigpen Tart, and R. Ursano, 2016: Ch. 8: Mental health and well-being. The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 217–246. doi:10.7930/J0TX3C9H.
  • DOE, 2015: Tribal Energy System Vulnerabilities to Climate Change and Extreme Weather. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Office of Indian Energy, Washington, DC, 489 pp. URL.
  • Donatuto, J., E. E. Grossman, J. Konovsky, S. Grossman, and L. W. Campbell, 2014: Indigenous community health and climate change: Integrating biophysical and social science indicators. Coastal Management, 42 (4), 355–373. doi:10.1080/08920753.2014.923140.
  • Donatuto, J., L. Campbell, and R. Gregory, 2016: Developing Responsive Indicators of Indigenous community health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13 (9), 899. doi:10.3390/ijerph13090899.
  • Doyle, J. T., M. H. Redsteer, and M. J. Eggers, 2013: Exploring effects of climate change on Northern Plains American Indian health. Climatic Change, 120 (3), 643–655. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0799-z.
  • Durkalec, A., C. Furgal, M. W. Skinner, and T. Sheldon, 2015: Climate change influences on environment as a determinant of Indigenous health: Relationships to place, sea ice, and health in an Inuit community. Social Science & Medicine, 136137, 17–26. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.04.026.
  • Emanuel, R. E., 2018: Climate change in the Lumbee River watershed and potential impacts on the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina. Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education, 163 (1), 79–93. doi:10.1111/j.1936-704X.2018.03271.x.
  • EPA, 2017: Identifying, Assessing and Adapting to Climate Change Impacts to Yurok Water and Aquatic Resources, Food Security and Tribal Health. EPA Grant Number: R835604. U.S. EPA, Washington, DC, URL.
  • Ferguson, D. B., C. Alvord, M. Crimmins, M. Hiza Redsteer, M. Hayes, C. McNutt, R. Pulwarty, and M. Svoboda, 2011: Drought Preparedness for Tribes in the Four Corners Region. Report from April 2010 Workshop. Tucson, AZ: Climate Assessment for the Southwest. The Climate Assessment for the Southwest (CLIMAS), The Institute of the Environment, The University of Arizona , 42 pp. URL.
  • Fidel, M., A. Kliskey, L. Alessa, and O. P. Sutton, 2014: Walrus harvest locations reflect adaptation: A contribution from a community-based observation network in the Bering Sea. Polar Geography, 37 (1), 48–68. doi:10.1080/1088937X.2013.879613.
  • Ford, J. K., and E. Giles, 2015: Climate change adaptation in Indian Country: Tribal regulation of reservation lands and natural resources. William Mitchell Law Review, 41 (2), 519–551. URL.
  • Frye, D. D., 2012: Leasing, Law, and Land Tenure: Understanding the Impact of the Long-Term Leasing Act of 1955 on Indian Land Holdings. SSRN, doi:10.2139/ssrn.2181724 .
  • Frye, D., and D. P. Parker, 2016: Paternalism versus sovereignty: The long-run economic effects of the Indian Reorganization Act. Unlocking the Wealth of Indian Nations. Anderson, T. L., Ed., Lexington Books, Lanham, MD, 224–244.
  • Gadamus, L., 2013: Linkages between human health and ocean health: A participatory climate change vulnerability assessment for marine mammal harvesters. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 72 (1), 20715. doi:10.3402/ijch.v72i0.20715.
  • Gadamus, L., and J. Raymond-Yakoubian, 2015: A Bering Strait indigenous framework for resource management: Respectful seal and walrus hunting. Arctic Anthropology, 52 (2), 87–101. URL.
  • Gamble, J. L., J. Balbus, M. Berger, K. Bouye, V. Campbell, K. Chief, K. Conlon, A. Crimmins, B. Flanagan, C. Gonzalez-Maddux, E. Hallisey, S. Hutchins, L. Jantarasami, S. Khoury, M. Kiefer, J. Kolling, K. Lynn, A. Manangan, M. McDonald, R. Morello-Frosch, M. H. Redsteer, P. Sheffield, K. Thigpen Tart, J. Watson, K. P. Whyte, and A. F. Wolkin, 2016: Ch. 9: Populations of concern. The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 247–286. doi:10.7930/J0Q81B0T.
  • GAO, 2009: Alaska Native Villages: Limited Progress Has Been Made on Relocating Villages Threatened by Flooding and Erosion. Government Accountability Office Report GAO-09-551. U.S. Government Accountability Office, 53 pp. URL.
  • GAO, 2013: Flood Insurance: Participation of Indian Tribes in Federal and Private Programs. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-13-226. U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO), Washington, DC, 36 pp. URL.
  • GAO, 2015: Indian Irrigation Projects: Deferred Maintenance and Financial Sustainability Issues Remain Unresolved. Testimony Before the Committee on Indian Affairs, U.S. Senate, by Anne-Marie Fennell. GAO-15-453T. U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO), Washington, DC, 15 pp. URL.
  • Garlich-Miller, J., J. G. MacCracken, J. Snyder, R. Meehan, M. Myers, J. M. Wilder, E. Lance, and A. Matz, 2011: Status review of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, AK, 155 pp. URL.
  • Gautam, M. R., K. Chief, and W. J. Smith Jr., 2013: Climate change in arid lands and Native American socioeconomic vulnerability: The case of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe. Climatic Change, 120 (3), 585–599. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0737-0.
  • Gerlach, S. C., and P. A. Loring, 2013: Rebuilding northern foodsheds, sustainable food systems, community well-being, and food security. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 72 (1), 21560. doi:10.3402/ijch.v72i0.21560.
  • Gould, W. A., S. J. Fain, I. K. Pares, K. McGinley, A. Perry, and R. F. Steele, 2015: Caribbean Regional Climate Sub Hub Assessment of Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies. USDA Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry, Rio Piedras, PR, 67 pp. URL.
  • Grah, O., and J. Beaulieu, 2013: The effect of climate change on glacier ablation and baseflow support in the Nooksack River basin and implications on Pacific salmonid species protection and recovery. Climatic Change, 120 (3), 657–670. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0747-y.
  • Gregory, R., D. Easterling, N. Kaechele, and W. Trousdale, 2016: Values‐based measures of impacts to indigenous health. Risk Analysis, 36 (8), 1581–1588. doi:10.1111/risa.12533.
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  • Gruenig, B., K. Lynn, G. Voggesser, and K. P. Whyte, 2015: Tribal climate change principles: Responding to federal policies and actions to address climate change. [Unpulished report on file with TCCP]. Tribal Climate Change Project (TCCP), Eugene, OR, 20 pp. URL.
  • Halofsky, J. E., D. L. Peterson, and K. W. Marcinkowski, 2015: Climate Change Adaptation in United States Federal Natural Resource Science and Management Agencies: A Synthesis. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 80 pp. URL.
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  • Hatfield, J., G. Takle, R. Grotjahn, P. Holden, R. C. Izaurralde, T. Mader, E. Marshall, and D. Liverman, 2014: Ch. 6: Agriculture. Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment. Melillo, J. M., Terese (T.C.) Richmond, and G. W. Yohe, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 150–174. doi:10.7930/J02Z13FR.
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  • Jones, T. E., 2016: Analysis of the Barriers to Renewable Energy Development on Tribal Lands Ph.D., School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona, 144 pp. URL.
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  • Maldonado, J., H. Lazrus, S.-K. Bennett, K. Chief, C. M. Dhillon, B. Gough, L. Kruger, J. Morisette, S. Petrovic, and K. P. Whyte, 2016: The story of Rising Voices: Facilitating collaboration between Indigenous and Western ways of knowing. Responses to Disasters and Climate Change: Understanding Vulnerability and Fostering Resilience. Companion, M., and M. S. Chaiken, Eds., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 15–26.
  • Marino, E., 2015: Fierce Climate, Sacred Ground: An Ethnography of Climate Change in Shishmaref, Alaska. University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks, AK,.
  • Marino, E., 2018: Adaptation privilege and Voluntary Buyouts: Perspectives on ethnocentrism in sea level rise relocation and retreat policies in the US. Global Environmental Change, 49, 10–13. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2018.01.002.
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  • Montag, J. M., K. Swan, K. Jenni, T. Nieman, J. Hatten, M. Mesa, D. Graves, F. Voss, M. Mastin, J. Hardiman, and A. Maule, 2014: Climate change and Yakama Nation tribal well-being. Climatic Change, 124 (1), 385–398. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-1001-3.
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