Federal Coordinating Lead Authors:
John M. Balbus, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
George Luber, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Chapter Lead:
Kristie L. Ebi, University of Washington
Chapter Authors:
Aparna Bole, University Hospitals Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital, Ohio
Allison Crimmins, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Gregory Glass, University of Florida
Shubhayu Saha, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Mark M. Shimamoto, American Geophysical Union
Juli Trtanj, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Jalonne L. White-Newsome, The Kresge Foundation
Review Editor:
David D'Onofrio, Atlanta Regional Commission
Technical Contributor:
Stasia Widerynski, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
USGCRP Coordinators:
Ashley Bieniek-Tobasco, Health Program Coordinator
Sarah Zerbonne, Adaptation and Decision Science Coordinator
Natalie Bennett, Adaptation and Assessment Analyst
Christopher W. Avery, Senior Manager

Human Health

REFERENCES

  • Adelaine, S. A., M. Sato, Y. Jin, and H. Godwin, 2017: An assessment of climate change impacts on Los Angeles (California USA) hospitals, wildfires highest priority. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 32 (5), 556–562. doi:10.1017/S1049023X17006586.
  • Ahdoot, S., and The Council on Environmental Health, 2015: Global climate change and children's health. Pediatrics, 136 (5), 992–997. doi:10.1542/peds.2015-3232.
  • Akil, L., H. A. Ahmad, and R. S. Reddy, 2014: Effects of climate change on Salmonella infections. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, 11 (12), 974–980. doi:10.1089/fpd.2014.1802.
  • Aldunce, P., R. Beilin, J. Handmer, and M. Howden, 2016: Stakeholder participation in building resilience to disasters in a changing climate. Environmental Hazards, 15 (1), 58–73. doi:10.1080/17477891.2015.1134427.
  • Anderson, G. B., K. W. Oleson, B. Jones, and R. D. Peng, 2016: Projected trends in high-mortality heatwaves under different scenarios of climate, population, and adaptation in 82 US communities. Climatic Change, doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1779-x.
  • Anderson, H., C. Brown, L. L. Cameron, M. Christenson, K. C. Conlon, S. Dorevitch, J. Dumas, M. Eidson, A. Ferguson, E. Grossman, A. Hanson, J. J. Hess, B. Hoppe, J. Horton, M. Jagger, S. Krueger, T. W. Largo, G. M. Losurdo, S. R. Mack, C. Moran, C. Mutnansky, K. Raab, S. Saha, P. J. Schramm, A. Shipp-Hilts, S. J. Smith, M. Thelen, L. Thie, and R. Walker, 2017: Climate and Health Intervention Assessment: Evidence on Public Health Interventions to Prevent the Negative Health Effects of Climate Change. Climate and Health Technical Report Series. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Climate and Health Program, Atlanta, GA, 92 pp. URL.
  • Aziz, R. K., M. M. Khalifa, and R. R. Sharaf, 2015: Contaminated water as a source of Helicobacter pylori infection: A review. Journal of Advanced Research, 6 (4), 539–547. doi:10.1016/j.jare.2013.07.007.
  • Baker-Austin, C., J. Trinanes, N. Gonzalez-Escalona, and J. Martinez-Urtaza, 2017: Non-cholera vibrios: The microbial barometer of climate change. Trends in Microbiology, 25 (1), 76–84. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2016.09.008.
  • Balbus, J., A. Crimmins, J. L. Gamble, D. R. Easterling, K. E. Kunkel, S. Saha, and M. C. Sarofim, 2016: Ch. 1: Introduction: Climate change and human health. The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 25–42. doi:10.7930/J0VX0DFW.
  • Banks, L. H., L. A. Davenport, M. H. Hayes, M. A. McArthur, S. N. Toro, C. E. King, and H. M. Vazirani, 2016: Disaster impact on impoverished area of US: An inter-professional mixed method study. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 31 (6), 583–592. doi:10.1017/S1049023X1600090X.
  • Barreau, T., D. Conway, K. Haught, R. Jackson, R. Kreutzer, A. Lockman, S. Minnick, R. Roisman, D. Rozell, S. Smorodinsky, D. Tafoya, and J. A. Wilken, 2017: Physical, mental, and financial impacts from drought in two California counties, 2015. American Journal of Public Health, 107 (5), 783–790. doi:10.2105/ajph.2017.303695.
  • Bathi, J. R., and H. S. Das, 2016: Vulnerability of coastal communities from storm surge and flood disasters. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13 (2), 239. doi:10.3390/ijerph13020239.
  • Battilani, P., P. Toscano, H. J. Van der Fels-Klerx, A. Moretti, M. Camardo Leggieri, C. Brera, A. Rortais, T. Goumperis, and T. Robinson, 2016: Aflatoxin B1 contamination in maize in Europe increases due to climate change. Scientific Reports, 6, 24328. doi:10.1038/srep24328.
  • Baussan, D., 2015: When You Can't Go Home: The Gulf Coast 10 Years after Katrina. Center for American Progress, Washington, DC, 10 pp. URL.
  • Beard, C. B., R. J. Eisen, C. M. Barker, J. F. Garofalo, M. Hahn, M. Hayden, A. J. Monaghan, N. H. Ogden, and P. J. Schramm, 2016: Ch. 5: Vector-borne diseases . The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 129–156. doi:10.7930/J0765C7V.
  • Becker, E., 2016: June 2016 ENSO Discussion: The New Neutral. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Climate.gov, Silver Spring, MD. URL.
  • Bell, J. E., S. C. Herring, L. Jantarasami, C. Adrianopoli, K. Benedict, K. Conlon, V. Escobar, J. Hess, J. Luvall, C. P. Garcia-Pando, D. Quattrochi, J. Runkle, and C. J. Schreck III, 2016: Ch. 4: Impacts of extreme events on human health. The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 99–128. doi:10.7930/J0BZ63ZV.
  • Belova, A., D. Mills, R. Hall, A. S. Juliana, A. Crimmins, C. Barker, and R. Jones, 2017: Impacts of increasing temperature on the future incidence of West Nile neuroinvasive disease in the United States. American Journal of Climate Change, 6 (1), 75278. doi:10.4236/ajcc.2017.61010.
  • Berisha, V., D. Hondula, M. Roach, J. R. White, B. McKinney, D. Bentz, A. Mohamed, J. Uebelherr, and K. Goodin, 2017: Assessing adaptation strategies for extreme heat: A public health evaluation of cooling centers in Maricopa County, Arizona. Weather, Climate, and Society, 9 (1), 71–80. doi:10.1175/wcas-d-16-0033.1.
  • Berman, J. D., K. Ebisu, R. D. Peng, F. Dominici, and M. L. Bell, 2017: Drought and the risk of hospital admissions and mortality in older adults in western USA from 2000 to 2013: A retrospective study . The Lancet Planetary Health, 1 (1), e17–e25. doi:10.1016/S2542-5196(17)30002-5.
  • Bermúdez, R., Y. Feng, M. Y. Roleda, A. O. Tatters, D. A. Hutchins, T. Larsen, P. W. Boyd, C. L. Hurd, U. Riebesell, and M. Winder, 2015: Long-term conditioning to elevated pCO2 and warming influences the fatty and amino acid composition of the diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis. PLOS ONE, 10 (5), e0123945. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0123945.
  • Bobb, J. F., Z. Obermeyer, Y. Wang, and F. Dominici, 2014: Cause-specific risk of hospital admission related to extreme heat in older adults. JAMA, 312 (24), 2659–2667. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.15715.
  • Bogoch, I. I., O. J. Brady, M. U. G. Kraemer, M. German, M. I. Creatore, M. A. Kulkarni, J. S. Brownstein, S. R. Mekaru, S. I. Hay, E. Groot, A. Watts, and K. Khan, 2016: Anticipating the international spread of Zika virus from Brazil. The Lancet, 387 (10016), 335–336. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00080-5.
  • Brooks, B. W., J. M. Lazorchak, M. D. A. Howard, M.-V. V. Johnson, S. L. Morton, D. A. K. Perkins, E. D. Reavie, G. I. Scott, S. A. Smith, and J. A. Steevens, 2016: Are harmful algal blooms becoming the greatest inland water quality threat to public health and aquatic ecosystems? Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 35 (1), 6–13. doi:10.1002/etc.3220.
  • Brown, M. E., J. M. Antle, P. Backlund, E. R. Carr, W. E. Easterling, M. K. Walsh, C. Ammann, W. Attavanich, C. B. Barrett, M. F. Bellemare, V. Dancheck, C. Funk, K. Grace, J. S. I. Ingram, H. Jiang, H. Maletta, T. Mata, A. Murray, M. Ngugi, D. Ojima, B. O'Neill, and C. Tebaldi, 2015: Climate Change, Global Food Security, and the U.S. Food System. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 146 pp. doi:10.7930/J0862DC7.
  • Burger, J., and M. Gochfeld, 2017: Perceptions of severe storms, climate change, ecological structures and resiliency three years post-hurricane Sandy in New Jersey. Urban Ecosystems, 20 (6), 1261–1275. doi:10.1007/s11252-017-0678-x.
  • Butterworth, M. K., C. W. Morin, and A. C. Comrie, 2017: An analysis of the potential impact of climate change on dengue transmission in the southeastern United States. Environmental Health Perspectives, 125, 579–585. doi:10.1289/EHP218.
  • Caminade, C., J. Turner, S. Metelmann, J. C. Hesson, M. S. C. Blagrove, T. Solomon, A. P. Morse, and M. Baylis, 2017: Global risk model for vector-borne transmission of Zika virus reveals the role of El Niño 2015. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114 (1), 119–124. doi:10.1073/pnas.1614303114.
  • Canyon, D. V., R. Speare, and F. M. Burkle, 2016: Forecasted impact of climate change on infectious disease and health security in Hawaii by 2050. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 10 (6), 797–804. doi:10.1017/dmp.2016.73.
  • Carlson, C. J., E. R. Dougherty, and W. Getz, 2016: An ecological assessment of the pandemic threat of Zika virus. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 10 (8), e0004968. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004968.
  • Carlton, E. J., A. P. Woster, P. DeWitt, R. S. Goldstein, and K. Levy, 2016: A systematic review and meta-analysis of ambient temperature and diarrhoeal diseases. International Journal of Epidemiology, 45 (1), 117–130. doi:10.1093/ije/dyv296.
  • Chapra, S. C., B. Boehlert, C. Fant, V. J. Bierman, J. Henderson, D. Mills, D. M. L. Mas, L. Rennels, L. Jantarasami, J. Martinich, K. M. Strzepek, and H. W. Paerl, 2017: Climate change impacts on harmful algal blooms in U.S. freshwaters: A screening-level assessment. Environmental Science & Technology, 51 (16), 8933–8943. doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b01498.
  • Cheng, J. J., and P. Berry, 2013: Health co-benefits and risks of public health adaptation strategies to climate change: A review of current literature. International Journal of Public Health, 58 (2), 305–311. doi:10.1007/s00038-012-0422-5.
  • Choudhary, E., and A. Vaidyanathan, 2014: Heat stress illness hospitalizations—Environmental public health tracking program, 20 States, 2001-2010. MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 63 (13), 1–10. URL.
  • Chretien, J.-P., A. Anyamba, J. Small, S. Britch, J. L. Sanchez, A. C. Halbach, C. Tucker, and K. J. Linthicum, 2015: Global climate anomalies and potential infectious disease risks: 2014-2015. PLOS Currents Outbreaks, 2015, Edition 1. doi:10.1371/currents.outbreaks.95fbc4a8fb4695e049baabfc2fc8289f.
  • Clarke, K.-L., and P. Berry, 2012: From theory to practice: A Canadian case study of the utility of climate change adaptation frameworks to address health impacts. International Journal of Public Health, 57 (1), 167–174. doi:10.1007/s00038-011-0292-2.
  • Clayton, S., C. Manning, K. Krygsman, and M. Speiser, 2017: Mental health and our changing climate: Impacts, implications, and guidance. American Psychological Association and ecoAmerica, Washington, DC, 69 pp. URL.
  • Colten, C. E., J. R. Z. Simms, A. A. Grismore, and S. A. Hemmerling, 2018: Social justice and mobility in coastal Louisiana, USA. Regional Environmental Change, 18 (2), 371–383. doi:10.1007/s10113-017-1115-7.
  • Coopersmith, E. J., J. E. Bell, K. Benedict, J. Shriber, O. McCotter, and M. H. Cosh, 2017: Relating coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) incidence to soil moisture conditions. GeoHealth, 1 (1), 51–63. doi:10.1002/2016GH000033.
  • Cushing, L. J., M. Wander, R. Morello-Frosch, M. Pastor, A. Zhu, and J. Sadd, 2016: A Preliminary Environmental Equity Assessment Of California's Cap-and-Trade Program. Program for Environmental and Regional Equity (PERE) Publication. USC Dornsife, Los Angeles, CA, 17 pp. URL.
  • Davidson, K., R. J. Gowen, P. J. Harrison, L. E. Fleming, P. Hoagland, and G. Moschonas, 2014: Anthropogenic nutrients and harmful algae in coastal waters. Journal of Environmental Management, 146, 206–216. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.07.002.
  • DHS, 2018: Homeland Infrastructure Foundation-Level Data (HIFLD) [web tool]. U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Washington, DC. URL.
  • Dodgen, D., D. Donato, N. Kelly, A. La Greca, J. Morganstein, J. Reser, J. Ruzek, S. Schweitzer, M. M. Shimamoto, K. Thigpen Tart, and R. Ursano, 2016: Ch. 8: Mental health and well-being. The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 217–246. doi:10.7930/J0TX3C9H.
  • Doppelt, B., 2016: Transformational Resilience: How Building Human Resilience to Climate Disruption Can Safeguard Society and Increase Wellbeing. Greenleaf Publishing (Routledge/Taylor & Francis), New York,.
  • Dunne, J. P., R. J. Stouffer, and J. G. John, 2013: Reductions in labour capacity from heat stress under climate warming. Nature Climate Change, 3, 563–566. doi:10.1038/nclimate1827.
  • Ebi, K. L., J. J. Hess, and T. B. Isaksen, 2016: Using uncertain climate and development information in health adaptation planning. Current Environmental Health Reports, 3 (1), 99–105. doi:10.1007/s40572-016-0077-0.
  • Ebi, K. L., T. J. Teisberg, L. S. Kalkstein, L. Robinson, and R. F. Weiher, 2004: Heat watch/warning systems save lives: Estimated costs and benefits for Philadelphia 1995–98. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 85 (8), 1067–1073. doi:10.1175/bams-85-8-1067.
  • Eckelman, M. J., and J. Sherman, 2016: Environmental impacts of the U.S. health care system and effects on public health. PLOS ONE, 11 (6), e0157014. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0157014.
  • EPA, 2017: Multi-model Framework for Quantitative Sectoral Impacts Analysis: A Technical Report for the Fourth National Climate Assessment. EPA 430‐R‐17‐001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC, 271 pp. URL.
  • Fann, N., C. G. Nolte, P. Dolwick, T. L. Spero, A. Curry Brown, S. Phillips, and S. Anenberg, 2015: The geographic distribution and economic value of climate change-related ozone health impacts in the United States in 2030. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 65 (5), 570–580. doi:10.1080/10962247.2014.996270.
  • Fisman, D. N., A. R. Tuite, and K. A. Brown, 2016: Impact of El Niño Southern Oscillation on infectious disease hospitalization risk in the United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113 (51), 14589–14594. doi:10.1073/pnas.1604980113.
  • Forman, F., G. Solomon, R. Morello-Frosch, and K. Pezzoli, 2016: Chapter 8. Bending the curve and closing the gap: Climate justice and public health. Collabra, 2 (1), 22. doi:10.1525/collabra.67.
  • Friel, S., H. Berry, H. Dinh, L. O'Brien, and H. L. Walls, 2014: The impact of drought on the association between food security and mental health in a nationally representative Australian sample. BMC Public Health, 14 (1), 1102. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1102.
  • Froelich, B. A., and R. T. Noble, 2016: Vibrio bacteria in raw oysters: Managing risks to human health. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 371 (1689), 20150209. doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0209.
  • Fullerton, C. S., J. B. A. McKibben, D. B. Reissman, T. Scharf, K. M. Kowalski-Trakofler, J. M. Shultz, and R. J. Ursano, 2013: Posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and alcohol and tobacco use in public health workers after the 2004 Florida hurricanes. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 7 (1), 89–95. doi:10.1017/dmp.2013.6.
  • Galway, L. P., D. M. Allen, M. W. Parkes, and T. K. Takaro, 2014: Seasonal variation of acute gastro-intestinal illness by hydroclimatic regime and drinking water source: A retrospective population-based study. Journal of Water and Health, 12 (1), 122–135. doi:10.2166/wh.2013.105.
  • Gamble, J. L., J. Balbus, M. Berger, K. Bouye, V. Campbell, K. Chief, K. Conlon, A. Crimmins, B. Flanagan, C. Gonzalez-Maddux, E. Hallisey, S. Hutchins, L. Jantarasami, S. Khoury, M. Kiefer, J. Kolling, K. Lynn, A. Manangan, M. McDonald, R. Morello-Frosch, M. H. Redsteer, P. Sheffield, K. Thigpen Tart, J. Watson, K. P. Whyte, and A. F. Wolkin, 2016: Ch. 9: Populations of concern. The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 247–286. doi:10.7930/J0Q81B0T.
  • Garfin, G. M., S. LeRoy, and H. Jones, 2017: Developing an Integrated Heat Health Information System for Long-Term Resilience to Climate and Weather Extremes in the El Paso-Juárez-Las Cruces Region. Institute of the Environment, Tucson, AZ, 63 pp. doi:10.7289/V5930R6Q.
  • Glibert, P. M., J. Icarus Allen, Y. Artioli, A. Beusen, L. Bouwman, J. Harle, R. Holmes, and J. Holt, 2014: Vulnerability of coastal ecosystems to changes in harmful algal bloom distribution in response to climate change: Projections based on model analysis. Global Change Biology, 20 (12), 3845–3858. doi:10.1111/gcb.12662.
  • Gonzalez, R., and other contributors, 2017: Community-driven climate resilience planning: A framework, version 2.0. National Association of Climate Resilience Planners, URL.
  • Gordon, K., and the Risky Business Project, 2014: The economic risks of climate change in the United States : A climate risk assessment for the United States. Risky Business Project, New York, 51 pp. URL.
  • Gorris, M. E., L. A. Cat, C. S. Zender, K. K. Treseder, and J. T. Randerson, 2018: Coccidioidomycosis dynamics in relation to climate in the southwestern United States. GeoHealth, 2 (1), 6–24. doi:10.1002/2017GH000095.
  • Gotanda, H., J. Fogel, G. Husk, J. M. Levine, M. Peterson, K. Baumlin, and J. Habboushe, 2015: Hurricane Sandy: Impact on emergency department and hospital utilization by older adults in Lower Manhattan, New York (USA). Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 30 (5), 496–502. doi:10.1017/S1049023X15005087.
  • Graff Zivin, J., and M. Neidell, 2014: Temperature and the allocation of time: Implications for climate change. Journal of Labor Economics, 32 (1), 1–26. doi:10.1086/671766.
  • Greenstein, J., J. Chacko, B. Ardolic, and N. Berwald, 2016: Impact of Hurricane Sandy on the Staten Island University Hospital Emergency Department. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 31 (3), 335–339. doi:10.1017/S1049023X16000261.
  • Griffin, D., and K. J. Anchukaitis, 2014: How unusual is the 2012–2014 California drought? Geophysical Research Letters, 41 (24), 9017–9023. doi:10.1002/2014GL062433.
  • Gronlund, C. J., A. Zanobetti, G. A. Wellenius, J. D. Schwartz, and M. S. O'Neill, 2016: Vulnerability to renal, heat and respiratory hospitalizations during extreme heat among U.S. elderly. Climatic Change, 136 (3), 631–645. doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1638-9.
  • Gronlund, C. J., V. J. Berrocal, J. L. White-Newsome, K. C. Conlon, and M. S. O'Neill, 2015: Vulnerability to extreme heat by socio-demographic characteristics and area green space among the elderly in Michigan, 1990-2007. Environmental Research, 136, 449–461. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2014.08.042.
  • Guenther, R., and J. Balbus, 2014: Primary Protection: Enhancing Health Care Resilience for a Changing Climate. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, URL.
  • Gutierrez, K., and C. LePrevost, 2016: Climate justice in rural southeastern United States: A review of climate change impacts and effects on human health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13 (2), 189. doi:10.3390/ijerph13020189.
  • Guzman Herrador, B. R., B. F. de Blasio, E. MacDonald, G. Nichols, B. Sudre, L. Vold, J. C. Semenza, and K. Nygård, 2015: Analytical studies assessing the association between extreme precipitation or temperature and drinking water-related waterborne infections: A review. Environmental Health, 14 (1), 29. doi:10.1186/s12940-015-0014-y.
  • Ha, S., D. Liu, Y. Zhu, S. S. Kim, S. Sherman, and P. Mendola, 2017: Ambient temperature and early delivery of singleton pregnancies. Environmental Health Perspectives, 125, 453–459. doi:10.1289/EHP97.
  • Hahn, M. B., C. S. Jarnevich, A. J. Monaghan, and R. J. Eisen, 2016: Modeling the geographic distribution of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the contiguous United States. Journal of Medical Entomology, 53 (5), 1176–1191. doi:10.1093/jme/tjw076.
  • Hasegawa, T., S. Fujimori, K. Takahashi, T. Yokohata, and T. Masui, 2016: Economic implications of climate change impacts on human health through undernourishment. Climatic Change, 136 (2), 189–202. doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1606-4.
  • Hellberg, R. S., and E. Chu, 2016: Effects of climate change on the persistence and dispersal of foodborne bacterial pathogens in the outdoor environment: A review. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 42 (4), 548–572. doi:10.3109/1040841X.2014.972335.
  • Hixson, S. M., and M. T. Arts, 2016: Climate warming is predicted to reduce omega-3, long-chain, polyunsaturated fatty acid production in phytoplankton. Global Change Biology, 22 (8), 2744–2755. doi:10.1111/gcb.13295.
  • Houser, T., R. Kopp, S. Hsiang, M. Delgado, A. Jina, K. Larsen, M. Mastrandrea, S. Mohan, R. Muir-Wood, D. Rasmussen, J. Rising, and P. Wilson, 2014: American Climate Prospectus: Economic Risks in the United States. Rhodium Group, New York, NY, 201 pp. URL.
  • Hsiang, S., R. Kopp, A. Jina, J. Rising, M. Delgado, S. Mohan, D. J. Rasmussen, R. Muir-Wood, P. Wilson, M. Oppenheimer, K. Larsen, and T. Houser, 2017: Estimating economic damage from climate change in the United States. Science, 356 (6345), 1362–1369. doi:10.1126/science.aal4369.
  • Ishida, H., S. Kobayashi, S. Kanae, T. Hasegawa, S. Fujimori, Y. Shin, K. Takahashi, T. Masui, A. Tanaka, and Y. Honda, 2014: Global-scale projection and its sensitivity analysis of the health burden attributable to childhood undernutrition under the latest scenario framework for climate change research. Environmental Research Letters, 9 (6), 064014. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/6/064014.
  • Island Press, 2015: Bounce Forward: Urban Resilience in the Era of Climate Change. Island Press and the Kresge Foundation, Washington, DC and Troy, MI, 36 pp. URL.
  • Jacobs, J., S. K. Moore, K. E. Kunkel, and L. Sun, 2015: A framework for examining climate-driven changes to the seasonality and geographical range of coastal pathogens and harmful algae. Climate Risk Management, 8, 16–27. doi:10.1016/j.crm.2015.03.002.
  • Jagai, J. S., Q. Li, S. Wang, K. P. Messier, T. J. Wade, and E. D. Hilborn, 2015: Extreme precipitation and emergency room visits for gastrointestinal illness in areas with and without combined sewer systems: An analysis of Massachusetts data, 2003-2007. Environmental Health Perspectives, 123 (9), 873–879. doi:10.1289/ehp.1408971.
  • Jiang, C., K. S. Shaw, C. R. Upperman, D. Blythe, C. Mitchell, R. Murtugudde, A. R. Sapkota, and A. Sapkota, 2015: Climate change, extreme events and increased risk of salmonellosis in Maryland, USA: Evidence for coastal vulnerability. Environment International, 83, 58–62. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2015.06.006.
  • Jones, B., C. Tebaldi, B. C. O'Neill, K. Oleson, and J. Gao, 2018: Avoiding population exposure to heat-related extremes: Demographic change vs climate change. Climatic Change, 146 (3), 423–437. doi:10.1007/s10584-017-2133-7.
  • Kabisch, N., H. Korn, J. Stadler, and A. Bonn, 2017: Nature-based solutions to climate change adaptation in urban areas--Linkages between science, policy and practice. Nature-based solutions to climate change adaptation in urban areas: Linkages between science, policy and practice. Kabisch, N., H. Korn, J. Stadler, and A. Bonn, Eds., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 1–11. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-56091-5_1.
  • Kaplan, S., B. Sadler, K. Little, C. Franz, and P. Orris, 2012: Can sustainable hospitals help bend the health care cost curve? Commonwealth Fund Pub. 1641. The Commonwealth Fund, New York, NY, 13 pp. URL.
  • Kiefer, M., J. Rodríguez-Guzmán, J. Watson, B. van Wendel de Joode, D. Mergler, and A. S. da Silva, 2016: Worker health and safety and climate change in the Americas: Issues and research needs. Revista panamericana de salud publica = Pan American Journal of Public Health, 40 (3), 192–197. URL.
  • Klein Rosenthal, J., P. L. Kinney, and K. B. Metzger, 2014: Intra-urban vulnerability to heat-related mortality in New York City, 1997–2006. Health & Place, 30, 45–60. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2014.07.014.
  • Knowlton, K., M. Rotkin-Ellman, L. Geballe, W. Max, and G. M. Solomon, 2011: Six climate change-related events in the United States accounted for about $14 billion in lost lives and health costs. Health Affairs, 30 (11), 2167–2176. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2011.0229.
  • Lake, I. R., 2017: Food-borne disease and climate change in the United Kingdom. Environmental Health, 16 (1), 117. doi:10.1186/s12940-017-0327-0.
  • Lamond, J. E., R. D. Joseph, and D. G. Proverbs, 2015: An exploration of factors affecting the long term psychological impact and deterioration of mental health in flooded households. Environmental Research, 140, 325–334. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2015.04.008.
  • Lane, K., K. Wheeler, K. Charles-Guzman, M. Ahmed, M. Blum, K. Gregory, N. Graber, N. Clark, and T. Matte, 2014: Extreme heat awareness and protective behaviors in New York City. Journal of Urban Health, 91 (3), 403–414. doi:10.1007/s11524-013-9850-7.
  • Lee, J.-S., M. Carabali, J. K. Lim, V. M. Herrera, I.-Y. Park, L. Villar, and A. Farlow, 2017: Early warning signal for dengue outbreaks and identification of high risk areas for dengue fever in Colombia using climate and non-climate datasets. BMC Infectious Diseases, 17 (1), 480. doi:10.1186/s12879-017-2577-4.
  • Leight, A. K., R. Hood, R. Wood, and K. Brohawn, 2016: Climate relationships to fecal bacterial densities in Maryland shellfish harvest waters. Water Research, 89, 270–281. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2015.11.055.
  • Lessler, J., L. H. Chaisson, L. M. Kucirka, Q. Bi, K. Grantz, H. Salje, A. C. Carcelen, C. T. Ott, J. S. Sheffield, N. M. Ferguson, D. A. T. Cummings, C. J. E. Metcalf, and I. Rodriguez-Barraquer, 2016: Assessing the global threat from Zika virus. Science, 353 (6300) doi:10.1126/science.aaf8160.
  • Levy, B. S., and J. A. Patz, 2015: Climate change, human rights, and social justice. Annals of Global Health, 81 (3), 310–322. doi:10.1016/j.aogh.2015.08.008.
  • Levy, K., A. P. Woster, R. S. Goldstein, and E. J. Carlton, 2016: Untangling the impacts of climate change on waterborne diseases: A systematic review of relationships between diarrheal diseases and temperature, rainfall, flooding, and drought. Environmental Science & Technology, 50 (10), 4905–4922. doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b06186.
  • Linthicum, K. J., A. Anyamba, S. C. Britch, J. L. Small, and C. J. Tucker, 2016: Climate teleconnections, weather extremes, and vector-borne disease outbreaks. Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases: Workshop Summary. Mack, A., Ed., National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 202–220. doi:10.17226/21792.
  • Lloyd, S. J., R. S. Kovats, and Z. Chalabi, 2011: Climate change, crop yields, and undernutrition: Development of a model to quantify the impact of climate scenarios on child undernutrition. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119 (12), 1817–1823. doi:10.1289/ehp.1003311.
  • Loladze, I., 2002: Rising atmospheric CO2 and human nutrition: Toward globally imbalanced plant stoichiometry? Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 17 (10), 457–461. doi:10.1016/s0169-5347(02)02587-9.
  • Lowe, D., K. L. Ebi, and B. Forsberg, 2011: Heatwave early warning systems and adaptation advice to reduce human health consequences of heatwaves. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8 (12), 4623. doi:10.3390/ijerph8124623.
  • Lowe, R., C. A. Coelho, C. Barcellos, M. S. Carvalho, R. D. C. Catão, G. E. Coelho, W. M. Ramalho, T. C. Bailey, D. B. Stephenson, and Xavier Rodó, 2016: Evaluating probabilistic dengue risk forecasts from a prototype early warning system for Brazil. eLIFE, 5, e11285. doi:10.7554/eLife.11285.
  • Lowe, S. R., L. Sampson, O. Gruebner, and S. Galea, 2015: Psychological resilience after Hurricane Sandy: The influence of individual- and community-level factors on mental health after a large-scale natural disaster. PLOS ONE, 10 (5), e0125761. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125761.
  • Mares, D. M., and K. W. Moffett, 2016: Climate change and interpersonal violence: A “global” estimate and regional inequities. Climatic Change, 135 (2), 297–310. doi:10.1007/s10584-015-1566-0.
  • Marsha, A., S. R. Sain, M. J. Heaton, A. J. Monaghan, and O. V. Wilhelmi, 2016: Influences of climatic and population changes on heat-related mortality in Houston, Texas, USA. Climatic Change, doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1775-1.
  • Martins, L. D., M. A. Tomaz, F. C. Lidon, F. M. DaMatta, and J. C. Ramalho, 2014: Combined effects of elevated [CO2] and high temperature on leaf mineral balance in Coffea spp. plants. Climatic Change, 126 (3), 365–379. doi:10.1007/s10584-014-1236-7.
  • McDonald, Y. J., S. E. Grineski, T. W. Collins, and Y. A. Kim, 2015: A scalable climate health justice assessment model. Social Science & Medicine, 133, 242–252. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.10.032.
  • Medek, D. E., J. Schwartz, and S. S. Myers, 2017: Estimated effects of future atmospheric CO2 concentrations on protein intake and the risk of protein deficiency by country and region. Environmental Health Perspectives, 125 (8), 087002. doi:10.1289/EHP41.
  • Medina, A., A. Rodriguez, and N. Magan, 2014: Effect of climate change on Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin B1 production. Frontiers in Microbiology, 5 (348) doi:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00348.
  • Mellor, J. E., K. Levy, J. Zimmerman, M. Elliott, J. Bartram, E. Carlton, T. Clasen, R. Dillingham, J. Eisenberg, R. Guerrant, D. Lantagne, J. Mihelcic, and K. Nelson, 2016: Planning for climate change: The need for mechanistic systems-based approaches to study climate change impacts on diarrheal diseases. Science of The Total Environment, 548549, 82–90. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.087.
  • Mendez, M. A., 2015: Assessing local climate action plans for public health co-benefits in environmental justice communities. Local Environment, 20 (6), 637–663. doi:10.1080/13549839.2015.1038227.
  • Milazzo, A., L. C. Giles, Y. Zhang, A. P. Koehler, J. E. Hiller, and P. Bi, 2017: The effects of ambient temperature and heatwaves on daily Campylobacter cases in Adelaide, Australia, 1990–2012. Epidemiology and Infection, 145 (12), 2603–2610. doi:10.1017/S095026881700139X.
  • Mills, D., R. Jones, C. Wobus, J. Ekstrom, L. Jantarasami, A. St. Juliana, and A. Crimmins, 2018: Projecting age-stratified risk of exposure to inland flooding and wildfire smoke in the United States under two climate scenarios. Environmental Health Perspectives, 126 (4), 047007. doi:10.1289/EHP2594.
  • Milojevic, A., B. Armstrong, and P. Wilkinson, 2017: Mental health impacts of flooding: A controlled interrupted time series analysis of prescribing data in England. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 71 (10), 970–973. doi:10.1136/jech-2017-208899.
  • Monaghan, A. J., K. M. Sampson, D. F. Steinhoff, K. C. Ernst, K. L. Ebi, B. Jones, and M. H. Hayden, 2016: The potential impacts of 21st century climatic and population changes on human exposure to the virus vector mosquito Aedes aegypti. Climatic Change, doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1679-0.
  • Mordecai, E. A., J. M. Cohen, M. V. Evans, P. Gudapati, L. R. Johnson, C. A. Lippi, K. Miazgowicz, C. C. Murdock, J. R. Rohr, S. J. Ryan, V. Savage, M. S. Shocket, A. Stewart Ibarra, M. B. Thomas, and D. P. Weikel, 2017: Detecting the impact of temperature on transmission of Zika, dengue, and chikungunya using mechanistic models. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11 (4), e0005568. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005568.
  • Muhling, B. A., C. F. Gaitán, C. A. Stock, V. S. Saba, D. Tommasi, and K. W. Dixon, 2017: Potential salinity and temperature futures for the Chesapeake Bay using a statistical downscaling spatial disaggregation framework. Estuaries and Coasts, doi:10.1007/s12237-017-0280-8.
  • Munro, A., R. S. Kovats, G. J. Rubin, T. D. Waite, A. Bone, and B. Armstrong, 2017: Effect of evacuation and displacement on the association between flooding and mental health outcomes: A cross-sectional analysis of UK survey data. The Lancet Planetary Health, 1 (4), e134–e141. doi:10.1016/S2542-5196(17)30047-5.
  • Muñoz, Á. G., M. C. Thomson, A. M. Stewart-Ibarra, G. A. Vecchi, X. Chourio, P. Nájera, Z. Moran, and X. Yang, 2017: Could the recent Zika epidemic have been predicted? Frontiers in Microbiology, 8 (1291) doi:10.3389/fmicb.2017.01291.
  • Myers, S. S., K. R. Wessells, I. Kloog, A. Zanobetti, and J. Schwartz, 2015: Effect of increased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide on the global threat of zinc deficiency: A modelling study. The Lancet Global Health, 3 (10), e639–e645. doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(15)00093-5.
  • Myers, S. S., M. R. Smith, S. Guth, C. D. Golden, B. Vaitla, N. D. Mueller, A. D. Dangour, and P. Huybers, 2017: Climate change and global food systems: Potential impacts on food security and undernutrition. Annual Review of Public Health, 38 (1), 259–277. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031816-044356.
  • National Hurricane Center, 2018: National Storm Surge Hazard Maps — Version 2 . NOAA National Weather Service, Miami, FL. URL.
  • Ngo, N. S., and R. M. Horton, 2016: Climate change and fetal health: The impacts of exposure to extreme temperatures in New York City. Environmental Research, 144, 158–164. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2015.11.016.
  • Nicholas, P. K., and S. Breakey, 2017: Climate change, climate justice, and environmental health: Implications for the nursing profession. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 49 (6), 606–616. doi:10.1111/jnu.12326.
  • Norton-Smith, K., K. Lynn, K. Chief, K. Cozzetto, J. Donatuto, M. H. Redsteer, L. E. Kruger, J. Maldonado, C. Viles, and K. P. Whyte, 2016: Climate Change and Indigenous Peoples: A Synthesis of Current Impacts and Experiences. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-944. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR, 136 pp. URL.
  • O'Neill, B. C., J. M. Done, A. Gettelman, P. Lawrence, F. Lehner, J.-F. Lamarque, L. Lin, A. J. Monaghan, K. Oleson, X. Ren, B. M. Sanderson, C. Tebaldi, M. Weitzel, Y. Xu, B. Anderson, M. J. Fix, and S. Levis, 2017: The Benefits of Reduced Anthropogenic Climate changE (BRACE): A synthesis. Climatic Change, doi:10.1007/s10584-017-2009-x.
  • Ogden, N. H., and L. R. Lindsay, 2016: Effects of climate and climate change on vectors and vector-borne diseases: Ticks are different. Trends in Parasitology, 32 (8), 646–656. doi:10.1016/j.pt.2016.04.015.
  • Oleson, K. W., G. B. Anderson, B. Jones, S. A. McGinnis, and B. Sanderson, 2015: Avoided climate impacts of urban and rural heat and cold waves over the U.S. using large climate model ensembles for RCP8.5 and RCP4.5. Climatic Change, doi:10.1007/s10584-015-1504-1.
  • Overstreet, S., A. Salloum, and C. Badour, 2010: A school-based assessment of secondary stressors and adolescent mental health 18 months post-Katrina. Journal of School Psychology, 48 (5), 413–431. doi:10.1016/j.jsp.2010.06.002.
  • Pacyna, J. M., I. T. Cousins, C. Halsall, A. Rautio, J. Pawlak, E. G. Pacyna, K. Sundseth, S. Wilson, and J. Munthe, 2015: Impacts on human health in the Arctic owing to climate-induced changes in contaminant cycling — The EU ArcRisk project policy outcome. Environmental Science & Policy, 50, 200–213. doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2015.02.010.
  • Paerl, H. W., 2014: Mitigating harmful cyanobacterial blooms in a human- and climatically-impacted world. Life, 4 (4), 988–1012. doi:10.3390/life4040988.
  • Paull, S. H., D. E. Horton, M. Ashfaq, D. Rastogi, L. D. Kramer, N. S. Diffenbaugh, and A. M. Kilpatrick, 2017: Drought and immunity determine the intensity of West Nile virus epidemics and climate change impacts. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 284 (1848) doi:10.1098/rspb.2016.2078.
  • Perera, F. P., 2017: Multiple threats to child health from fossil fuel combustion: Impacts of air pollution and climate change. Environmental Health Perspectives, 125, 141–148. doi:10.1289/EHP299.
  • Petitti, D. B., D. M. Hondula, S. Yang, S. L. Harlan, and G. Chowell, 2016: Multiple trigger points for quantifying heat-health impacts: New evidence from a hot climate. Environmental Health Perspectives, 124, 176–183. doi:10.1289/ehp.1409119.
  • Roser-Renouf, C., E. W. Maibach, and J. Li, 2016: Adapting to the changing climate: An assessment of local health department preparations for climate change-related health threats, 2008-2012. PLOS ONE, 11 (3), e0151558. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0151558.
  • Ross, M. E., A. M. Vicedo-Cabrera, R. E. Kopp, L. Song, D. S. Goldfarb, J. Pulido, S. Warner, S. L. Furth, and G. E. Tasian, 2018: Assessment of the combination of temperature and relative humidity on kidney stone presentations. Environmental Research, 162, 97–105. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2017.12.020.
  • Roth, M., 2018: A resilient community is one that includes and protects everyone. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 74 (2), 91–94. doi:10.1080/00963402.2018.1436808.
  • Rudolph, L., S. Gould, and J. Berko, 2015: Climate change, health, and equity: Opportunities for action. Public Health Institute, Oakland, CA, 56 pp. URL.
  • Ryan, S. J., A. McNally, L. R. Johnson, E. A. Mordecai, T. Ben-Horin, K. Paaijmans, and K. D. Lafferty, 2015: Mapping physiological suitability limits for malaria in Africa under climate change. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 15 (12), 718–725. doi:10.1089/vbz.2015.1822.
  • Saha, S., J. W. Brock, A. Vaidyanathan, D. R. Easterling, and G. Luber, 2015: Spatial variation in hyperthermia emergency department visits among those with employer-based insurance in the United States – a case-crossover analysis. Environmental Health, 14 (1), 20. doi:10.1186/s12940-015-0005-z.
  • Sarofim, M. C., S. Saha, M. D. Hawkins, D. M. Mills, J. Hess, R. Horton, P. Kinney, J. Schwartz, and A. St. Juliana, 2016: Ch. 2: Temperature-related death and illness. The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 43–68. doi:10.7930/J0MG7MDX.
  • Schrock, G., E. M. Bassett, and J. Green, 2015: Pursuing equity and justice in a changing climate: Assessing equity in local climate and sustainability plans in U.S. cities. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 35 (3), 282–295. doi:10.1177/0739456x15580022.
  • Schulte, P. A., A. Bhattacharya, C. R. Butler, H. K. Chun, B. Jacklitsch, T. Jacobs, M. Kiefer, J. Lincoln, S. Pendergrass, J. Shire, J. Watson, and G. R. Wagner, 2016: Advancing the framework for considering the effects of climate change on worker safety and health. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 13 (11), 847–865. doi:10.1080/15459624.2016.1179388.
  • Semenza, J. C., J. Trinanes, W. Lohr, B. Sudre, M. Löfdahl, J. Martinez-Urtaza, G. L. Nichols, and J. Rocklöv, 2017: Environmental suitability of Vibrio infections in a warming climate: An early warning system. Environmental Health Perspectives, 125 (10), 107004. doi:10.1289/EHP2198.
  • Semenza, J., 2015: Prototype early warning systems for vector-borne diseases in Europe. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12 (6), 6333–6351. doi:10.3390/ijerph120606333.
  • Sheffield, P., S. Uijttewaal, J. Stewart, and M. Galvez, 2017: Climate change and schools: Environmental hazards and resiliency. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14 (11), 1397. doi:10.3390/ijerph14111397.
  • Shepard, P. M., and C. Corbin-Mark, 2009: Climate justice. Environmental Justice, 2 (4), 163–166. doi:10.1089/env.2009.2402.
  • Sheridan, S. C., and S. Lin, 2014: Assessing variability in the impacts of heat on health outcomes in New York City over time, season, and heat-wave duration. EcoHealth, 11 (4), 512–525. doi:10.1007/s10393-014-0970-7.
  • Shimamoto, M. M., and S. McCormick, 2017: The role of health in urban climate adaptation: An analysis of six U.S. cities. Weather, Climate, and Society, 9 (4), 777–785. doi:10.1175/wcas-d-16-0142.1.
  • Shultz, J. M., J. P. Kossin, J. M. Shepherd, J. M. Ransdell, R. Walshe, I. Kelman, and S. Galea, 2018: Risk, health consequences, and response challenges for small-island-based populations: Observations from the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 1–13. doi:10.1017/dmp.2018.28.
  • Smith, K. R., A. Woodward, D. Campbell-Lendrum, D. D. Chadee, Y. Honda, Q. Liu, J. M. Olwoch, B. Revich, and R. Sauerborn, 2014: Human health: Impacts, adaptation, and co-benefits. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change. Field, C. B., V. R. Barros, D. J. Dokken, K. J. Mach, M. D. Mastrandrea, T. E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K. L. Ebi, Y. O. Estrada, R. C. Genova, B. Girma, E. S. Kissel, A. N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P. R. Mastrandrea, and L. L. White, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 709–754. URL.
  • Smith, M. R., C. D. Golden, and S. S. Myers, 2017: Potential rise in iron deficiency due to future anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. GeoHealth, 1 (6), 248–257. doi:10.1002/2016GH000018.
  • Soneja, S., C. Jiang, C. Romeo Upperman, R. Murtugudde, C. S. Mitchell, D. Blythe, A. R. Sapkota, and A. Sapkota, 2016: Extreme precipitation events and increased risk of campylobacteriosis in Maryland, U.S.A. Environmental Research, 149, 216–221. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2016.05.021.
  • Springer, Y. P., C. S. Jarnevich, D. T. Barnett, A. J. Monaghan, and R. J. Eisen, 2015: Modeling the present and future geographic distribution of the Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Ixodida: Ixodidae), in the continental United States. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 93 (4), 875–890. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.15-0330.
  • Springmann, M., D. Mason-D'Croz, S. Robinson, T. Garnett, H. C. J. Godfray, D. Gollin, M. Rayner, P. Ballon, and P. Scarborough, 2016: Global and regional health effects of future food production under climate change: A modelling study. The Lancet, 387 (10031), 1937–1946. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01156-3.
  • Tebaldi, C., and M. F. Wehner, 2016: Benefits of mitigation for future heat extremes under RCP4.5 compared to RCP8.5. Climatic Change, First online, 1–13. doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1605-5.
  • Tornevi, A., L. Barregård, and B. Forsberg, 2015: Precipitation and primary health care visits for gastrointestinal illness in Gothenburg, Sweden. PLOS ONE, 10 (5), e0128487. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0128487.
  • Trtanj, J., L. Jantarasami, J. Brunkard, T. Collier, J. Jacobs, E. Lipp, S. McLellan, S. Moore, H. Paerl, J. Ravenscroft, M. Sengco, and J. Thurston, 2016: Ch. 6: Climate impacts on water-related illness. The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 157–188. doi:10.7930/J03F4MH4.
  • USGCRP, 2016: The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 312 pp. doi:10.7930/J0R49NQX.
  • USGCRP, 2017: Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 470 pp. doi:10.7930/J0J964J6.
  • Vazquez-Prokopec, G. M., A. Lenhart, and P. Manrique-Saide, 2016: Housing improvement: A novel paradigm for urban vector-borne disease control? Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 110 (10), 567–569. doi:10.1093/trstmh/trw070.
  • Vazquez-Prokopec, G. M., T. A. Perkins, L. A. Waller, A. L. Lloyd, R. C. Reiner Jr., T. W. Scott, and U. Kitron, 2016: Coupled heterogeneities and their impact on parasite transmission and control. Trends in Parasitology, 32 (5), 356–367. doi:10.1016/j.pt.2016.01.001.
  • Veenema, T. G., C. P. Thornton, R. P. Lavin, A. K. Bender, S. Seal, and A. Corley, 2017: Climate change–related water disasters' impact on population health. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 49 (6), 625–634. doi:10.1111/jnu.12328.
  • Vickery, J., and L. M. Hunter, 2016: Native Americans: Where in environmental justice research? Society & Natural Resources, 29 (1), 36–52. doi:10.1080/08941920.2015.1045644.
  • Vins, H., J. Bell, S. Saha, and J. Hess, 2015: The mental health outcomes of drought: A systematic review and causal process diagram. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12 (10), 13251. doi:10.3390/ijerph121013251.
  • Vogel, J., K. M. Carney, J. B. Smith, C. Herrick, M. Stults, M. O'Grady, A. S. Juliana, H. Hosterman, and L. Giangola, 2016: Climate Adaptation — The State of Practice in U.S. Communities. Kresge Foundation, Detroit, URL.
  • Waite, T. D., K. Chaintarli, C. R. Beck, A. Bone, R. Amlôt, S. Kovats, M. Reacher, B. Armstrong, G. Leonardi, G. J. Rubin, and I. Oliver, 2017: The English national cohort study of flooding and health: Cross-sectional analysis of mental health outcomes at year one. BMC Public Health, 17 (1), 129. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-4000-2.
  • Wang, Y., J. F. Bobb, B. Papi, Y. Wang, A. Kosheleva, Q. Di, J. D. Schwartz, and F. Dominici, 2016: Heat stroke admissions during heat waves in 1,916 US counties for the period from 1999 to 2010 and their effect modifiers. Environmental Health, 15 (1), 83. doi:10.1186/s12940-016-0167-3.
  • White-Newsome, J. L., 2016: A policy approach toward climate justice. The Black Scholar, 46 (3), 12–26. doi:10.1080/00064246.2016.1188353.
  • Wolch, J. R., J. Byrne, and J. P. Newell, 2014: Urban green space, public health, and environmental justice: The challenge of making cities “just green enough.” Landscape and Urban Planning, 125, 234–244. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.01.017.
  • Worrall, E., S. J. Connor, and M. C. Thomson, 2008: Improving the cost-effectiveness of IRS with climate informed health surveillance systems. Malaria Journal, 7 (1), 263. doi:10.1186/1475-2875-7-263.
  • Young, I., K. Gropp, A. Fazil, and B. A. Smith, 2015: Knowledge synthesis to support risk assessment of climate change impacts on food and water safety: A case study of the effects of water temperature and salinity on Vibrio parahaemolyticus in raw oysters and harvest waters. Food Research International, 68, 86–93. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2014.06.035.
  • Yun, J., M. Greiner, C. Höller, U. Messelhäusser, A. Rampp, and G. Klein, 2016: Association between the ambient temperature and the occurrence of human Salmonella and Campylobacter infections. Scientific Reports, 6, 28442. doi:10.1038/srep28442.
  • Yusa, A., P. Berry, J. J.Cheng, N. Ogden, B. Bonsal, R. Stewart, and R. Waldick, 2015: Climate change, drought and human health in Canada. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12 (7), 8359. doi:10.3390/ijerph120708359.
  • Ziegler, C., V. Morelli, and O. Fawibe, 2017: Climate change and underserved communities. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice, 44 (1), 171–184. doi:10.1016/j.pop.2016.09.017.
  • Ziska, L., A. Crimmins, A. Auclair, S. DeGrasse, J. F. Garofalo, A. S. Khan, I. Loladze, A. A. Pérez de León, A. Showler, J. Thurston, and I. Walls, 2016: Ch. 7: Food safety, nutrition, and distribution. The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 189–216. doi:10.7930/J0ZP4417.

See Full Chapter & References