Federal Coordinating Lead Author:
Christopher G. Nolte, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Chapter Lead:
Christopher G. Nolte, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Chapter Authors:
Patrick D. Dolwick, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Neal Fann, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Larry W. Horowitz, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Vaishali Naik, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Robert W. Pinder, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Tanya L. Spero, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Darrell A. Winner, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Lewis H. Ziska, U.S. Department of Agriculture
Review Editor:
David D'Onofrio, Atlanta Regional Commission
USGCRP Coordinators:
Ashley Bieniek-Tobasco, Health Program Coordinator
Sarah Zerbonne, Adaptation and Decision Science Coordinator
Christopher W. Avery, Senior Manager

Air Quality


  • Abatzoglou, J. T., and A. P. Williams, 2016: Impact of anthropogenic climate change on wildfire across western US forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113 (42), 11770–11775. doi:10.1073/pnas.1607171113.
  • Abel, D., T. Holloway, R. M. Kladar, P. Meier, D. Ahl, M. Harkey, and J. Patz, 2017: Response of power plant emissions to ambient temperature in the eastern United States. Environmental Science & Technology, 51 (10), 5838–5846. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b06201.
  • Akagi, S. K., R. J. Yokelson, C. Wiedinmyer, M. Alvarado, J. Reid, T. Karl, J. Crounse, and P. Wennberg, 2011: Emission factors for open and domestic biomass burning for use in atmospheric models. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11 (9), 4039–4072. doi:10.5194/acp-11-4039-2011.
  • Albertine, J. M., W. J. Manning, M. DaCosta, K. A. Stinson, M. L. Muilenberg, and C. A. Rogers, 2014: Projected carbon dioxide to increase grass pollen and allergen exposure despite higher ozone levels. PLoS ONE, 9 (11), e111712. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111712.
  • Anenberg, S. C., J. Miller, R. Minjares, L. Du, D. K. Henze, F. Lacey, C. S. Malley, L. Emberson, V. Franco, Z. Klimont, and C. Heyes, 2017: Impacts and mitigation of excess diesel-related NOx emissions in 11 major vehicle markets. Nature, 545, 467–471. doi:10.1038/nature22086.
  • Anenberg, S. C., K. R. Weinberger, H. Roman, J. E. Neumann, A. Crimmins, N. Fann, J. Martinich, and P. L. Kinney, 2017: Impacts of oak pollen on allergic asthma in the United States and potential influence of future climate change. GeoHealth, 1 (3), 80–92. doi:10.1002/2017GH000055.
  • Baker, K. R., M. C. Woody, G. S. Tonnesen, W. Hutzell, H. O. T. Pye, M. R. Beaver, G. Pouliot, and T. Pierce, 2016: Contribution of regional-scale fire events to ozone and PM2.5 air quality estimated by photochemical modeling approaches. Atmospheric Environment, 140, 539–554. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.06.032.
  • Balch, J. K., B. A. Bradley, J. T. Abatzoglou, R. C. Nagy, E. J. Fusco, and A. L. Mahood, 2017: Human-started wildfires expand the fire niche across the United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114 (11), 2946–2951. doi:10.1073/pnas.1617394114.
  • Barbero, R., J. T. Abatzoglou, E. A. Steel, and N. K. Larkin, 2014: Modeling very large-fire occurrences over the continental United States from weather and climate forcing. Environmental Research Letters, 9 (12), 124009. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/12/124009.
  • Beggs, P. J., 2004: Impacts of climate change on aeroallergens: Past and future. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 34 (10), 1507–1513. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2004.02061.x.
  • Beggs, P. J., Ed., 2016: Impacts of Climate Change on Allergens and Allergic Diseases. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 193 pp. doi:10.1017/CBO9781107272859.
  • Bell, M. L., A. McDermott, S. L. Zeger, J. M. Samet, and F. Dominici, 2004: Ozone and short-term mortality in 95 US urban communities, 1987-2000. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 292 (19), 2372–2378. doi:10.1001/jama.292.19.2372.
  • Bell, M. L., and F. Dominici, 2008: Effect modification by community characteristics on the short-term effects of ozone exposure and mortality in 98 US communities. American Journal of Epidemiology, 167 (8), 986–997. doi:10.1093/aje/kwm396.
  • Bielory, L., K. Lyons, and R. Goldberg, 2012: Climate change and allergic disease. Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, 12 (6), 485–494. doi:10.1007/s11882-012-0314-z.
  • Blando, J., L. Bielory, V. Nguyen, R. Diaz, and H. A. Jeng, 2012: Anthropogenic climate change and allergic diseases. Atmosphere, 3 (4), 200–212. doi:10.3390/atmos3010200.
  • Bloomer, B. J., J. W. Stehr, C. A. Piety, R. J. Salawitch, and R. R. Dickerson, 2009: Observed relationships of ozone air pollution with temperature and emissions. Geophysical Research Letters, 36 (9), L09803. doi:10.1029/2009gl037308.
  • Breitner, S., K. Wolf, R. B. Devlin, D. Diaz-Sanchez, A. Peters, and A. Schneider, 2014: Short-term effects of air temperature on mortality and effect modification by air pollution in three cities of Bavaria, Germany: A time-series analysis. Science of The Total Environment, 485486, 49–61. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.03.048.
  • Brey, S. J., and E. V. Fischer, 2016: Smoke in the city: How often and where does smoke impact summertime ozone in the United States? Environmental Science & Technology, 50 (3), 1288–1294. doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b05218.
  • Cakmak, S., R. E. Dales, and F. Coates, 2012: Does air pollution increase the effect of aeroallergens on hospitalization for asthma? Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 129 (1), 228–231. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.09.025.
  • Camalier, L., W. Cox, and P. Dolwick, 2007: The effects of meteorology on ozone in urban areas and their use in assessing ozone trends. Atmospheric Environment, 41 (33), 7127–7137. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.04.061.
  • Cascio, W. E., 2018: Wildland fire smoke and human health. Science of The Total Environment, 624, 586–595. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.086.
  • Cecchi, L., G. D'Amato, J. G. Ayres, C. Galan, F. Forastiere, B. Forsberg, J. Gerritsen, C. Nunes, H. Behrendt, C. Akdis, R. Dahl, and I. Annesi-Maesano, 2010: Projections of the effects of climate change on allergic asthma: The contribution of aerobiology. Allergy, 65, 1073–1081. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2010.02423.x.
  • Chen, J., J. Avise, B. Lamb, E. Salathé, C. Mass, A. Guenther, C. Wiedinmyer, J. F. Lamarque, S. O'Neill, D. McKenzie, and N. Larkin, 2009: The effects of global changes upon regional ozone pollution in the United States. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9 (4), 1125–1141. doi:10.5194/acp-9-1125-2009.
  • Chen, K., K. Wolf, R. Hampel, M. Stafoggia, S. Breitner, J. Cyrys, E. Samoli, Z. J. Andersen, G. Bero-Bedada, T. Bellander, F. Hennig, B. Jacquemin, J. Pekkanen, A. Peters, A. Schneider, on behalf of the UF, and H. S. Group, 2018: Does temperature-confounding control influence the modifying effect of air temperature in ozone–mortality associations? Environmental Epidemiology, 2 (1), e008. doi:10.1097/ee9.0000000000000008.
  • Cook, B. I., J. E. Smerdon, R. Seager, and S. Coats, 2014: Global warming and 21st century drying. Climate Dynamics, 43 (9), 2607–2627. doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2075-y.
  • Cottle, P., K. Strawbridge, and I. McKendry, 2014: Long-range transport of Siberian wildfire smoke to British Columbia: Lidar observations and air quality impacts. Atmospheric Environment, 90, 71–77. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.03.005.
  • D'Amato, G., 2002: Environmental urban factors (air pollution and allergens) and the rising trends in allergic respiratory diseases. Allergy, 57 Suppl 72, 30–33. doi:10.1034/j.1398-9995.57.s72.5.x.
  • D'Amato, G., and L. Cecchi, 2008: Effects of climate change on environmental factors in respiratory allergic diseases. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 38 (8), 1264–1274. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2008.03033.x.
  • D'Amato, G., C. E. Baena-Cagnani, L. Cecchi, I. Annesi-Maesano, C. Nunes, I. Ansotegui, M. D'Amato, G. Liccardi, M. Sofia, and W. G. Canonica, 2013: Climate change, air pollution and extreme events leading to increasing prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases. Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine, 8 (1), 12. doi:10.1186/2049-6958-8-12.
  • D'Amato, G., G. Liccardi, and G. Frenguelli, 2007: Thunderstorm-asthma and pollen allergy. Allergy, 62 (1), 11–16. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2006.01271.x.
  • D'Amato, G., G. Liccardi, M. D'Amato, and M. Cazzola, 2001: The role of outdoor air pollution and climatic changes on the rising trends in respiratory allergy. Respiratory Medicine, 95 (7), 606–611. doi:10.1053/rmed.2001.1112.
  • D'Amato, G., L. Cecchi, M. D'Amato, and G. Liccardi, 2010: Urban air pollution and climate change as environmental risk factors of respiratory allergy: An update. Journal of Investigational Allergology and Clinical Immunology, 20 (2), 95–102. URL.
  • D'Amato, G., M. Rottem, R. Dahl, M. S. Blaiss, E. Ridolo, L. Cecchi, N. Rosario, C. Motala, I. Ansotegui, and I. Annesi-Maesano, 2011: Climate change, migration, and allergic respiratory diseases: An update for the allergist. World Allergy Organization Journal, 4 (7), 121–125. doi:10.1097/WOX.0b013e3182260a57.
  • Dawson, J. P., B. J. Bloomer, D. A. Winner, and C. P. Weaver, 2014: Understanding the meteorological drivers of U.S. particulate matter concentrations in a changing climate. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 95 (4), 521–532. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00181.1.
  • Delfino, R. J., S. Brummel, J. Wu, H. Stern, B. Ostro, M. Lipsett, A. Winer, D. H. Street, L. Zhang, T. Tjoa, and D. L. Gillen, 2009: The relationship of respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions to the southern California wildfires of 2003. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 66 (3), 189–197. doi:10.1136/oem.2008.041376.
  • Dennison, P. E., S. C. Brewer, J. D. Arnold, and M. A. Moritz, 2014: Large wildfire trends in the western United States, 1984–2011. Geophysical Research Letters, 41 (8), 2928–2933. doi:10.1002/2014GL059576.
  • Doherty, R. M., O. Wild, D. T. Shindell, G. Zeng, I. A. MacKenzie, W. J. Collins, A. M. Fiore, D. S. Stevenson, F. J. Dentener, M. G. Schultz, P. Hess, R. G. Derwent, and T. J. Keating, 2013: Impacts of climate change on surface ozone and intercontinental ozone pollution: A multi-model study. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118 (9), 3744–3763. doi:10.1002/jgrd.50266.
  • Dreessen, J., J. Sullivan, and R. Delgado, 2016: Observations and impacts of transported Canadian wildfire smoke on ozone and aerosol air quality in the Maryland region on June 9–12, 2015. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 66 (9), 842–862. doi:10.1080/10962247.2016.1161674.
  • Ebi, K. L., and G. McGregor, 2008: Climate change, tropospheric ozone and particulate matter, and health impacts. Environmental Health Perspectives, 116, 1449–1455. doi:10.1289/ehp.11463.
  • EPA, 2009: Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter. EPA/600/R-08/139F. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, URL.
  • EPA, 2013: Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants. EPA 600/R-10/076F. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park, NC, 1251 pp. URL.
  • EPA, 2014: Health Risk and Exposure Assessment for Ozone: Final Report . EPA-452/R-14-004a . U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Research Triangle Park, NC, [various] pp. URL.
  • EPA, 2015: Regulatory Impact Analysis of the Final Revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ground-Level Ozone. EPA-452/R-15-007. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park, NC, various pp. URL.
  • EPA, 2016: 2014 National Emissions Inventory, Version 1. Technical Support Document. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, various pp. URL.
  • EPA, 2016: Air Quality Design Values: 2016 Design Value Reports [web site]. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC. URL.
  • EPA, 2016: Climate Change Indicators: Ragweed Pollen Season. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC. URL.
  • EPA, 2016: Climate Change Indicators: Wildfires. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC. URL.
  • EPA, 2016: Emissions Inventory for Air Quality Modeling Technical Support Document: Heavy-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Phase 2 Final Rule. EPA-420-R-16-008. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC, 199 pp. URL.
  • EPA, 2017: Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2015. EPA 430-P-17-001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., 633 pp. URL.
  • EPA, 2017: Multi-model Framework for Quantitative Sectoral Impacts Analysis: A Technical Report for the Fourth National Climate Assessment. EPA 430‐R‐17‐001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC, 271 pp. URL.
  • EPA, 2017: National Air Quality: Status and Trends of Key Air Pollutants [web site]. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC. URL.
  • Fahey, D. W., S. Doherty, K. A. Hibbard, A. Romanou, and P. C. Taylor, 2017: Physical Drivers of Climate Change. Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 73–113. doi:10.7930/J0513WCR.
  • Fann, N., A. D. Lamson, S. C. Anenberg, K. Wesson, D. Risley, and B. J. Hubbell, 2012: Estimating the national public health burden associated with exposure to ambient PM2.5 and ozone. Risk Analysis, 32 (1), 81–95. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.2011.01630.x.
  • Fann, N., B. Alman, R. A. Broome, G. G. Morgan, F. H. Johnston, G. Pouliot, and A. G. Rappold, 2018: The health impacts and economic value of wildland fire episodes in the U.S.: 2008–2012. Science of The Total Environment, 610611, 802–809. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.024.
  • Fann, N., C. G. Nolte, P. Dolwick, T. L. Spero, A. Curry Brown, S. Phillips, and S. Anenberg, 2015: The geographic distribution and economic value of climate change-related ozone health impacts in the United States in 2030. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 65 (5), 570–580. doi:10.1080/10962247.2014.996270.
  • Fann, N., T. Brennan, P. Dolwick, J. L. Gamble, V. Ilacqua, L. Kolb, C. G. Nolte, T. L. Spero, and L. Ziska, 2016: Ch. 3: Air quality impacts. The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 69–98. doi:10.7930/J0GQ6VP6.
  • Fiore, A. M., F. J. Dentener, O. Wild, C. Cuvelier, M. G. Schultz, P. Hess, C. Textor, M. Schulz, R. M. Doherty, L. W. Horowitz, I. A. MacKenzie, M. G. Sanderson, D. T. Shindell, D. S. Stevenson, S. Szopa, R. Van Dingenen, G. Zeng, C. Atherton, D. Bergmann, I. Bey, G. Carmichael, W. J. Collins, B. N. Duncan, G. Faluvegi, G. Folberth, M. Gauss, S. Gong, D. Hauglustaine, T. Holloway, I. S. A. Isaksen, D. J. Jacob, J. E. Jonson, J. W. Kaminski, T. J. Keating, A. Lupu, E. Marmer, V. Montanaro, R. J. Park, G. Pitari, K. J. Pringle, J. A. Pyle, S. Schroeder, M. G. Vivanco, P. Wind, G. Wojcik, S. Wu, and A. Zuber, 2009: Multimodel estimates of intercontinental source-receptor relationships for ozone pollution. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 114 (D4), D04301. doi:10.1029/2008JD010816.
  • Fiore, A. M., V. Naik, and E. M. Leibensperger, 2015: Air quality and climate connections. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 65 (6), 645–685. doi:10.1080/10962247.2015.1040526.
  • Fisk, W. J., 2015: Review of some effects of climate change on indoor environmental quality and health and associated no-regrets mitigation measures. Building and Environment, 86, 70–80. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2014.12.024.
  • Gamble, J. L., J. Balbus, M. Berger, K. Bouye, V. Campbell, K. Chief, K. Conlon, A. Crimmins, B. Flanagan, C. Gonzalez-Maddux, E. Hallisey, S. Hutchins, L. Jantarasami, S. Khoury, M. Kiefer, J. Kolling, K. Lynn, A. Manangan, M. McDonald, R. Morello-Frosch, M. H. Redsteer, P. Sheffield, K. Thigpen Tart, J. Watson, K. P. Whyte, and A. F. Wolkin, 2016: Ch. 9: Populations of concern. The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 247–286. doi:10.7930/J0Q81B0T.
  • Gao, J., S. Kovats, S. Vardoulakis, P. Wilkinson, A. Woodward, J. Li, S. Gu, X. Liu, H. Wu, J. Wang, X. Song, Y. Zhai, J. Zhao, and Q. Liu, 2018: Public health co-benefits of greenhouse gas emissions reduction: A systematic review. Science of The Total Environment, 627, 388–402. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.193.
  • Garcia-Menendez, F., E. Monier, and N. E. Selin, 2017: The role of natural variability in projections of climate change impacts on U.S. ozone pollution. Geophysical Research Letters, 44 (6), 2911–2921. doi:10.1002/2016GL071565.
  • Garcia-Mozo, H., C. Galán, V. Jato, J. Belmonte, C. D. de la Guardia, D. Fernández, M. Gutiérrez, M. J. Aira, J. M. Roure, L. Ruiz, M. M. Trigo, and E. Domínguez-Vilches, 2006: Quercus pollen season dynamics in the Iberian peninsula: Response to meteorological parameters and possible consequences of climate change. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 13 (2), 209–224. URL.
  • Gleason, J. A., L. Bielory, and J. A. Fagliano, 2014: Associations between ozone, PM2.5, and four pollen types on emergency department pediatric asthma events during the warm season in New Jersey: A case-crossover study. Environmental Research, 132, 421–429. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2014.03.035.
  • Ha, S., Y. Zhu, D. Liu, S. Sherman, and P. Mendola, 2017: Ambient temperature and air quality in relation to small for gestational age and term low birthweight. Environmental Research, 155, 394–400. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2017.02.021.
  • Heald, C. L., D. K. Henze, L. W. Horowitz, J. Feddema, J. F. Lamarque, A. Guenther, P. G. Hess, F. Vitt, J. H. Seinfeld, A. H. Goldstein, and I. Fung, 2008: Predicted change in global secondary organic aerosol concentrations in response to future climate, emissions, and land use change. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113 (D5), D05211. doi:10.1029/2007JD009092.
  • Henderson, S. B., M. Brauer, Y. C. Macnab, and S. M. Kennedy, 2011: Three measures of forest fire smoke exposure and their associations with respiratory and cardiovascular health outcomes in a population-based cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119 (9), 1266–1271. doi:10.1289/ehp.1002288.
  • Hew, M., M. Sutherland, F. Thien, and R. O'Hehir, 2017: The Melbourne thunderstorm asthma event: Can we avert another strike? Internal Medicine Journal, 47 (5), 485–487. doi:10.1111/imj.13413.
  • Hogrefe, C., B. Lynn, K. Civerolo, J. ‐Y. Ku, J. Rosenthal, C. Rosenzweig, R. Goldberg, S. Gaffin, K. Knowlton, and P. L. Kinney, 2004: Simulating changes in regional air pollution over the eastern United States due to changes in global and regional climate and emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 109 (D22), D22301. doi:10.1029/2004JD004690.
  • Horton, D. E., C. B. Skinner, D. Singh, and N. S. Diffenbaugh, 2014: Occurrence and persistence of future atmospheric stagnation events. Nature Climate Change, 4 (8), 698–703. doi:10.1038/nclimate2272.
  • Horton, D. E., N. C. Johnson, D. Singh, D. L. Swain, B. Rajaratnam, and N. S. Diffenbaugh, 2015: Contribution of changes in atmospheric circulation patterns to extreme temperature trends. Nature, 522 (7557), 465–469. doi:10.1038/nature14550.
  • Hurteau, M. D., A. L. Westerling, C. Wiedinmyer, and B. P. Bryant, 2014: Projected effects of climate and development on California wildfire emissions through 2100. Environmental Science & Technology, 48 (4), 2298–2304. doi:10.1021/es4050133.
  • Jacob, D. J., and D. A. Winner, 2009: Effect of climate change on air quality. Atmospheric Environment, 43 (1), 51–63. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.09.051.
  • Jaffe, D. A., and N. L. Wigder, 2012: Ozone production from wildfires: A critical review. Atmospheric Environment, 51, 1–10. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.11.063.
  • Jaffe, D., D. Chand, W. Hafner, A. Westerling, and D. Spracklen, 2008: Influence of fires on O3 concentrations in the western US. Environmental Science & Technology, 42 (16), 5885–5891. doi:10.1021/es800084k.
  • Jaffe, D., W. Hafner, D. Chand, A. Westerling, and D. Spracklen, 2008: Interannual variations in PM2.5 due to wildfires in the western United States. Environmental Science & Technology, 42 (8), 2812–2818. doi:10.1021/es702755v.
  • Jhun, I., N. Fann, A. Zanobetti, and B. Hubbell, 2014: Effect modification of ozone-related mortality risks by temperature in 97 US cities. Environment International, 73, 128–134. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2014.07.009.
  • Johnston, F. H., S. B. Henderson, Y. Chen, J. T. Randerson, M. Marlier, R. S. DeFries, P. Kinney, D. M. J. S. Bowman, and M. Brauer, 2012: Estimated global mortality attributable to smoke from landscape fires. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120 (5), 695–701. doi:10.1289/ehp.1104422.
  • Kahle, J. J., L. M. Neas, R. B. Devlin, M. W. Case, M. T. Schmitt, M. C. Madden, and D. Diaz-Sanchez, 2015: Interaction effects of temperature and ozone on lung function and markers of systemic inflammation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis: A crossover study of healthy young volunteers. Environmental Health Perspectives, 123, 310–316. doi:10.1289/ehp.1307986.
  • Keywood, M., M. Kanakidou, A. Stohl, F. Dentener, G. Grassi, C. P. Meyer, K. Torseth, D. Edwards, A. M. Thompson, U. Lohmann, and J. Burrows, 2013: Fire in the air: Biomass burning impacts in a changing climate. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 43 (1), 40–83. doi:10.1080/10643389.2011.604248.
  • Kirtman, B., S. B. Power, J. A. Adedoyin, G. J. Boer, R. Bojariu, I. Camilloni, F. J. Doblas-Reyes, A. M. Fiore, M. Kimoto, G. A. Meehl, M. Prather, A. Sarr, C. Schar, R. Sutton, G. J. van Oldenborgh, G. Vecchi, and H. J. Wang, 2013: Near-term climate change: Projections and predictability. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Stocker, T. F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, and P. M. Midgley, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, 953–1028. doi:10.1017/CBO9781107415324.023.
  • Kollanus, V., P. Tiittanen, J. V. Niemi, and T. Lanki, 2016: Effects of long-range transported air pollution from vegetation fires on daily mortality and hospital admissions in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. Environmental Research, 151, 351–358. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2016.08.003.
  • Koplitz, S. N., L. J. Mickley, M. E. Marlier, J. J. Buonocore, P. S. Kim, T. Liu, M. P. Sulprizio, R. S. DeFries, D. J. Jacob, J. Schwartz, M. Pongsiri, and S. S. Myers, 2016: Public health impacts of the severe haze in Equatorial Asia in September–October 2015: Demonstration of a new framework for informing fire management strategies to reduce downwind smoke exposure. Environmental Research Letters, 11 (9), 094023. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/9/094023.
  • Krewski, D., M. Jerrett, R. T. Burnett, R. Ma, E. Hughes, Y. Shi, M. C. Turner, C. A. Pope III, G. Thurston, E. E. Calle, and M. J. Thun, 2009: Extended follow-up and spatial analysis of the American Cancer Society study linking particulate air pollution and mortality. HEI Research Report 140. Health Effects Institute, Boston, MA, 140 pp. URL.
  • Künzli, N., E. Avol, J. Wu, W. J. Gauderman, E. Rappaport, J. Millstein, J. Bennion, R. McConnell, F. D. Gilliland, K. Berhane, F. Lurmann, A. Winer, and J. M. Peters, 2006: Health effects of the 2003 southern California wildfires on children. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 174 (11), 1221–1228. doi:10.1164/rccm.200604-519OC.
  • LaDeau, S. L., and J. S. Clark, 2006: Pollen production by Pinus taeda growing in elevated atmospheric CO2. Functional Ecology, 20 (3), 541–547. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2435.2006.01133.x.
  • Lam, Y. F., J. S. Fu, S. Wu, and L. J. Mickley, 2011: Impacts of future climate change and effects of biogenic emissions on surface ozone and particulate matter concentrations in the United States. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11 (10), 4789–4806. doi:10.5194/acp-11-4789-2011.
  • Leung, L. R., and W. I. Gustafson, 2005: Potential regional climate change and implications to U.S. air quality. Geophysical Research Letters, 32 (16), L16711. doi:10.1029/2005GL022911.
  • Lin, M., L. W. Horowitz, R. Payton, A. M. Fiore, and G. Tonnesen, 2017: US surface ozone trends and extremes from 1980 to 2014: Quantifying the roles of rising Asian emissions, domestic controls, wildfires, and climate. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17 (4), 2943–2970. doi:10.5194/acp-17-2943-2017.
  • Liu, J. C., G. Pereira, S. A. Uhl, M. A. Bravo, and M. L. Bell, 2015: A systematic review of the physical health impacts from non-occupational exposure to wildfire smoke. Environmental Research, 136, 120–132. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2014.10.015.
  • Liu, J. C., L. J. Mickley, M. P. Sulprizio, X. Yue, R. D. Peng, F. Dominici, and M. L. Bell, 2016: Future respiratory hospital admissions from wildfire smoke under climate change in the Western US. Environmental Research Letters, 11 (12), 124018. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/12/124018.
  • Lovett, G. M., T. H. Tear, D. C. Evers, S. E. G. Findlay, B. J. Cosby, J. K. Dunscomb, C. T. Driscoll, and K. C. Weathers, 2009: Effects of air pollution on ecosystems and biological diversity in the eastern United States. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1162 (1), 99–135. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04153.x.
  • Mallia, D. V., J. C. Lin, S. Urbanski, J. Ehleringer, and T. Nehrkorn, 2015: Impacts of upwind wildfire emissions on CO, CO2, and PM2.5 concentrations in Salt Lake City, Utah. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 120 (1), 147–166. doi:10.1002/2014JD022472.
  • Mickley, L. J., D. J. Jacob, B. D. Field, and D. Rind, 2004: Effects of future climate change on regional air pollution episodes in the United States. Geophysical Research Letters, 31 (24), L24103. doi:10.1029/2004GL021216.
  • Mitchell, R. J., Y. Liu, J. J. O'Brien, K. J. Elliott, G. Starr, C. F. Miniat, and J. K. Hiers, 2014: Future climate and fire interactions in the southeastern region of the United States. Forest Ecology and Management, 327, 316–326. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2013.12.003.
  • Navarro, K. M., R. Cisneros, S. M. O'Neill, D. Schweizer, N. K. Larkin, and J. R. Balmes, 2016: Air-quality impacts and intake fraction of PM2.5 during the 2013 Rim Megafire. Environmental Science & Technology, 50 (21), 11965–11973. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b02252.
  • Nemet, G. F., T. Holloway, and P. Meier, 2010: Implications of incorporating air-quality co-benefits into climate change policymaking. Environmental Research Letters, 5 (1), 014007. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/5/1/014007.
  • Park, R. J., D. J. Jacob, M. Chin, and R. V. Martin, 2003: Sources of carbonaceous aerosols over the United States and implications for natural visibility. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108 (D12), 4355. doi:10.1029/2002JD003190.
  • Parrish, D. D., H. B. Singh, L. Molina, and S. Madronich, 2011: Air quality progress in North American megacities: A review. Atmospheric Environment, 45 (39), 7015–7025. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.09.039.
  • Peters, A., D. W. Dockery, J. E. Muller, and M. A. Mittleman, 2001: Increased particulate air pollution and the triggering of myocardial infarction. Circulation, 103 (23), 2810–2815. doi:10.1161/01.Cir.103.23.2810.
  • Pfister, G. G., C. Wiedinmyer, and L. K. Emmons, 2008: Impacts of the fall 2007 California wildfires on surface ozone: Integrating local observations with global model simulations. Geophysical Research Letters, 35 (19), L19814. doi:10.1029/2008GL034747.
  • Pye, H. O. T., H. Liao, S. Wu, L. J. Mickley, D. J. Jacob, D. K. Henze, and J. H. Seinfeld, 2009: Effect of changes in climate and emissions on future sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosol levels in the United States. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114 (D1), D01205. doi:10.1029/2008JD010701.
  • Racherla, P. N., and P. J. Adams, 2006: Sensitivity of global tropospheric ozone and fine particulate matter concentrations to climate change. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 111 (D24), D24103. doi:10.1029/2005JD006939.
  • Rao, S., Z. Klimont, J. Leitao, K. Riahi, R. van Dingenen, L. A. Reis, K. Calvin, F. Dentener, L. Drouet, S. Fujimori, M. Harmsen, G. Luderer, C. Heyes, J. Strefler, M. Tavoni, and D. P. van Vuuren, 2016: A multi-model assessment of the co-benefits of climate mitigation for global air quality. Environmental Research Letters, 11 (12), 124013. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/12/124013.
  • Rasmussen, D. J., J. Hu, A. Mahmud, and M. J. Kleeman, 2013: The ozone–climate penalty: Past, present, and future. Environmental Science & Technology, 47 (24), 14258–14266. doi:10.1021/es403446m.
  • Reid, C. E., M. Brauer, F. H. Johnston, M. Jerrett, J. R. Balmes, and C. T. Elliott, 2016: Critical review of health impacts of wildfire smoke exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives, 124, 1334–1343. doi:10.1289/ehp.1409277.
  • Ren, C., G. M. Williams, L. Morawska, K. Mengersen, and S. Tong, 2008: Ozone modifies associations between temperature and cardiovascular mortality: Analysis of the NMMAPS data. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 65 (4), 255–260. doi:10.1136/oem.2007.033878.
  • Ren, C., S. Melly, and J. Schwartz, 2010: Modifiers of short-term effects of ozone on mortality in eastern Massachusetts — A case-crossover analysis at individual level. Environmental Health, 9 (1), Article 3. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-9-3.
  • Rogers, C. A., P. M. Wayne, E. A. Macklin, M. L. Muilenberg, C. J. Wagner, P. R. Epstein, and F. A. Bazzaz, 2006: Interaction of the onset of spring and elevated atmospheric CO2 on ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) pollen production. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114 (6), 865–869. doi:10.1289/ehp.8549.
  • Sacks, J. D., L. W. Stanek, T. J. Luben, D. O. Johns, B. J. Buckley, J. S. Brown, and M. Ross, 2011: Particulate matter–induced health effects: Who is susceptible? Environmental Health Perspectives, 119 (4), 446–454. doi:10.1289/ehp.1002255.
  • Sapkota, A., J. M. Symons, J. Kleissl, L. Wang, M. B. Parlange, J. Ondov, P. N. Breysse, G. B. Diette, P. A. Eggleston, and T. J. Buckley, 2005: Impact of the 2002 Canadian forest fires on particulate matter air quality in Baltimore City. Environmental Science & Technology, 39 (1), 24–32. doi:10.1021/es035311z.
  • Sarofim, M. C., S. T. Waldhoff, and S. C. Anenberg, 2017: Valuing the ozone-related health benefits of methane emission controls. Environmental and Resource Economics, 66 (1), 45–63. doi:10.1007/s10640-015-9937-6.
  • Schelegle, E. S., C. A. Morales, W. F. Walby, S. Marion, and R. P. Allen, 2009: 6.6-hour inhalation of ozone concentrations from 60 to 87 parts per billion in healthy humans. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 180 (3), 265–272. doi:10.1164/rccm.200809-1484OC.
  • Schnell, J. L., and M. J. Prather, 2017: Co-occurrence of extremes in surface ozone, particulate matter, and temperature over eastern North America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114 (11), 2854–2859. doi:10.1073/pnas.1614453114.
  • Shea, K. M., R. T. Truckner, R. W. Weber, and D. B. Peden, 2008: Climate change and allergic disease. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 122 (3), 443–453. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.06.032.
  • Shen, L., L. J. Mickley, and L. T. Murray, 2017: Influence of 2000–2050 climate change on particulate matter in the United States: Results from a new statistical model. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17 (6), 4355–4367. doi:10.5194/acp-17-4355-2017.
  • Shindell, D. T., J. S. Fuglestvedt, and W. J. Collins, 2017: The social cost of methane: Theory and applications. Faraday Discussions, 200, 429–451. doi:10.1039/C7FD00009J.
  • Shindell, D., J. C. I. Kuylenstierna, E. Vignati, R. van Dingenen, M. Amann, Z. Klimont, S. C. Anenberg, N. Muller, G. Janssens-Maenhout, F. Raes, J. Schwartz, G. Faluvegi, L. Pozzoli, K. Kupiainen, L. Hoglund-Isaksson, L. Emberson, D. Streets, V. Ramanathan, K. Hicks, N. T. K. Oanh, G. Milly, M. Williams, V. Demkine, and D. Fowler, 2012: Simultaneously mitigating near-term climate change and improving human health and food security. Science, 335 (6065), 183–189. doi:10.1126/science.1210026.
  • Simon, H., A. Reff, B. Wells, J. Xing, and N. Frank, 2015: Ozone trends across the United States over a period of decreasing NOx and VOC emissions. Environmental Science & Technology, 49 (1), 186–195. doi:10.1021/es504514z.
  • Singer, B. D., L. H. Ziska, D. A. Frenz, D. E. Gebhard, and J. G. Straka, 2005: Increasing Amb a 1 content in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen as a function of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. Functional Plant Biology, 32 (7), 667–670. doi:10.1071/fp05039.
  • Spracklen, D. V., J. A. Logan, L. J. Mickley, R. J. Park, R. Yevich, A. L. Westerling, and D. A. Jaffe, 2007: Wildfires drive interannual variability of organic carbon aerosol in the western US in summer. Geophysical Research Letters, 34 (16), L16816. doi:10.1029/2007GL030037.
  • Spracklen, D. V., L. J. Mickley, J. A. Logan, R. C. Hudman, R. Yevich, M. D. Flannigan, and A. L. Westerling, 2009: Impacts of climate change from 2000 to 2050 on wildfire activity and carbonaceous aerosol concentrations in the western United States. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114 (D20), D20301. doi:10.1029/2008JD010966.
  • Stavros, E. N., J. T. Abatzoglou, D. McKenzie, and N. K. Larkin, 2014: Regional projections of the likelihood of very large wildland fires under a changing climate in the contiguous Western United States. Climatic Change, 126 (3), 455–468. doi:10.1007/s10584-014-1229-6.
  • Tai, A. P. K., L. J. Mickley, and D. J. Jacob, 2010: Correlations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and meteorological variables in the United States: Implications for the sensitivity of PM2.5 to climate change. Atmospheric Environment, 44 (32), 3976–3984. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.06.060.
  • Tai, A. P. K., L. J. Mickley, and D. J. Jacob, 2012: Impact of 2000–2050 climate change on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality inferred from a multi-model analysis of meteorological modes. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12 (23), 11329–11337. doi:10.5194/acp-12-11329-2012.
  • TFHTAP, 2010: Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution 2010 Part A: Ozone and Particulate Matter. Air Pollution Studies No. 17. United Nations, Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TFHTAP), Geneva, 278 pp. URL.
  • Thompson, T. M., S. Rausch, R. K. Saari, and N. E. Selin, 2014: A systems approach to evaluating the air quality co-benefits of US carbon policies. Nature Climate Change, 4, 917–923. doi:10.1038/nclimate2342.
  • Tian, D., Y. Wang, M. Bergin, Y. Hu, Y. Liu, and A. G. Russell, 2008: Air quality impacts from prescribed forest fires under different management practices. Environmental Science & Technology, 42 (8), 2767–2772. doi:10.1021/es0711213.
  • Trail, M. A., A. P. Tsimpidi, P. Liu, K. Tsigaridis, Y. Hu, J. R. Rudokas, P. J. Miller, A. Nenes, and A. G. Russell, 2015: Impacts of potential CO2-reduction policies on air quality in the United States. Environmental Science & Technology, 49 (8), 5133–5141. doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b00473.
  • Turner, A. J., A. M. Fiore, L. W. Horowitz, and M. Bauer, 2013: Summertime cyclones over the Great Lakes Storm Track from 1860–2100: Variability, trends, and association with ozone pollution. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13 (2), 565–578. doi:10.5194/acp-13-565-2013.
  • Upperman, C. R., J. D. Parker, L. J. Akinbami, C. Jiang, X. He, R. Murtugudde, F. C. Curriero, L. Ziska, and A. Sapkota, 2017: Exposure to extreme heat events is associated with increased hay fever prevalence among nationally representative sample of US adults: 1997-2013. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, 5 (2), 435–441.e2. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2016.09.016.
  • USGCRP, 2017: Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 470 pp. doi:10.7930/J0J964J6.
  • Val Martin, M., C. L. Heald, J. F. Lamarque, S. Tilmes, L. K. Emmons, and B. A. Schichtel, 2015: How emissions, climate, and land use change will impact mid-century air quality over the United States: A focus on effects at National Parks. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15 (5), 2805–2823. doi:10.5194/acp-15-2805-2015.
  • Weaver, C. P., E. Cooter, R. Gilliam, A. Gilliland, A. Grambsch, D. Grano, B. Hemming, S. W. Hunt, C. Nolte, D. A. Winner, X.-Z. Liang, J. Zhu, M. Caughey, K. Kunkel, J.-T. Lin, Z. Tao, A. Williams, D. J. Wuebbles, P. J. Adams, J. P. Dawson, P. Amar, S. He, J. Avise, J. Chen, R. C. Cohen, A. H. Goldstein, R. A. Harley, A. L. Steiner, S. Tonse, A. Guenther, J.-F. Lamarque, C. Wiedinmyer, W. I. Gustafson, L. R. Leung, C. Hogrefe, H.-C. Huang, D. J. Jacob, L. J. Mickley, S. Wu, P. L. Kinney, B. Lamb, N. K. Larkin, D. McKenzie, K.-J. Liao, K. Manomaiphiboon, A. G. Russell, E. Tagaris, B. H. Lynn, C. Mass, E. Salathé, S. M. O'neill, S. N. Pandis, P. N. Racherla, C. Rosenzweig, and J.-H. Woo, 2009: A preliminary synthesis of modeled climate change impacts on U.S. regional ozone concentrations. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 90 (12), 1843–1863. doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2568.1.
  • Wehner, M. F., J. R. Arnold, T. Knutson, K. E. Kunkel, and A. N. LeGrande, 2017: Droughts, Floods, and Wildfires. Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Wuebbles, D. J., D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 231–256. doi:10.7930/J0CJ8BNN.
  • West, J. J., S. J. Smith, R. A. Silva, V. Naik, Y. Zhang, Z. Adelman, M. M. Fry, S. Anenberg, L. W. Horowitz, and J.-F. Lamarque, 2013: Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health. Nature Climate Change, 3 (10), 885–889. doi:10.1038/nclimate2009.
  • West, J. J., S. Szopa, and D. A. Hauglustaine, 2007: Human mortality effects of future concentrations of tropospheric ozone. Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 339 (11), 775–783. doi:10.1016/j.crte.2007.08.005.
  • Westerling, A. L., H. G. Hidalgo, D. R. Cayan, and T. W. Swetnam, 2006: Warming and earlier spring increase western U.S. forest wildfire activity. Science, 313 (5789), 940–943. doi:10.1126/science.1128834.
  • Westerling, A. L., M. G. Turner, E. A. H. Smithwick, W. H. Romme, and M. G. Ryan, 2011: Continued warming could transform Greater Yellowstone fire regimes by mid-21st century. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108 (32), 13165–13170. doi:10.1073/pnas.1110199108.
  • Westervelt, D. M., L. W. Horowitz, V. Naik, A. P. K. Tai, A. M. Fiore, and D. L. Mauzerall, 2016: Quantifying PM2.5-meteorology sensitivities in a global climate model. Atmospheric Environment, 142, 43–56. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.07.040.
  • WHO/Europe, 2013: Review of evidence on health aspects of air pollution — REVIHAAP project: Final technical report. World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark, 302 pp. URL.
  • Wiedinmyer, C., and M. D. Hurteau, 2010: Prescribed fire as a means of reducing forest carbon emissions in the western United States. Environmental Science & Technology, 44 (6), 1926–1932. doi:10.1021/es902455e.
  • Williams, A. P., and J. T. Abatzoglou, 2016: Recent advances and remaining uncertainties in resolving past and future climate effects on global fire activity. Current Climate Change Reports, 2 (1), 1–14. doi:10.1007/s40641-016-0031-0.
  • Wilson, A., A. G. Rappold, L. M. Neas, and B. J. Reich, 2014: Modeling the effect of temperature on ozone-related mortality. Annals of Applied Statistics, 8 (3), 1728–1749. doi:10.1214/14-AOAS754.
  • Witham, C., and A. Manning, 2007: Impacts of Russian biomass burning on UK air quality. Atmospheric Environment, 41 (37), 8075–8090. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.06.058.
  • Wolf, J., N. R. R. O'Neill C. A., M. L. Muilenberg, and L. H. Ziska, 2010: Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations amplify Alternaria alternata sporulation and total antigen production. Environmental Health Perspectives, 118 (9), 1223–1228. doi:10.1289/ehp.0901867.
  • Wu, S., L. J. Mickley, E. M. Leibensperger, D. J. Jacob, D. Rind, and D. G. Streets, 2008: Effects of 2000–2050 global change on ozone air quality in the United States. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 113 (D6), D06302. doi:10.1029/2007JD008917.
  • Xing, J., J. Wang, R. Mathur, J. Pleim, S. Wang, C. Hogrefe, C.-M. Gan, D. C. Wong, and J. Hao, 2016: Unexpected benefits of reducing aerosol cooling effects. Environmental Science & Technology, 50 (14), 7527–7534. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b00767.
  • Yue, X., L. J. Mickley, J. A. Logan, and J. O. Kaplan, 2013: Ensemble projections of wildfire activity and carbonaceous aerosol concentrations over the western United States in the mid-21st century. Atmospheric Environment, 77, 767–780. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.06.003.
  • Yue, X., L. J. Mickley, J. A. Logan, R. C. Hudman, M. V. Martin, and R. M. Yantosca, 2015: Impact of 2050 climate change on North American wildfire: Consequences for ozone air quality . Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15 (17), 10033–10055. doi:10.5194/acp-15-10033-2015.
  • Zanobetti, A., and J. Schwartz, 2008: Is there adaptation in the ozone mortality relationship: A multi-city case-crossover analysis. Environmental Health, 7 (1), 22. doi:10.1186/1476-069x-7-22.
  • Zhang, Y., J. H. Bowden, Z. Adelman, V. Naik, L. W. Horowitz, S. J. Smith, and J. J. West, 2016: Co-benefits of global and regional greenhouse gas mitigation for US air quality in 2050. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16 (15), 9533–9548. doi:10.5194/acp-16-9533-2016.
  • Zheng, X., H. Ding, L. Jiang, S. Chen, J. Zheng, M. Qiu, Y. Zhou, Q. Chen, and W. Guan, 2015: Association between air pollutants and asthma emergency room visits and hospital admissions in time series studies: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS ONE, 10 (9), e0138146. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0138146.
  • Ziska, L. H., 2016: Impacts of climate change on allergen seasonality. Impacts of Climate Change on Allergens and Allergic Diseases. Beggs, P. J., Ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 92–112. doi:10.1017/CBO9781107272859.007.
  • Ziska, L. H., D. E. Gebhard, D. A. Frenz, S. Faulkner, B. D. Singer, and J. G. Straka, 2003: Cities as harbingers of climate change: Common ragweed, urbanization, and public health. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 111 (2), 290–295. doi:10.1067/mai.2003.53.
  • Ziska, L., K. Knowlton, C. Rogers, D. Dalan, N. Tierney, M. A. Elder, W. Filley, J. Shropshire, L. B. Ford, C. Hedberg, P. Fleetwood, K. T. Hovanky, T. Kavanaugh, G. Fulford, R. F. Vrtis, J. A. Patz, J. Portnoy, F. Coates, L. Bielory, and D. Frenz, 2011: Recent warming by latitude associated with increased length of ragweed pollen season in central North America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108 (10), 4248–4251. doi:10.1073/pnas.1014107108.
  • Zu, K., X. Liu, L. Shi, G. Tao, C. T. Loftus, S. Lange, and J. E. Goodman, 2017: Concentration-response of short-term ozone exposure and hospital admissions for asthma in Texas. Environment International, 104, 139–145. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2017.04.006.

See Full Chapter & References