Federal Coordinating Lead Author:
David Reidmiller, U.S. Global Change Research Program
Chapter Lead:
Alexa Jay, U.S. Global Change Research Program
Chapter Authors:
Christopher W. Avery, U.S. Global Change Research Program
Daniel Barrie, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Apurva Dave, U.S. Global Change Research Program
Benjamin DeAngelo, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Matthew Dzaugis, U.S. Global Change Research Program
Michael Kolian, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Kristin Lewis, U.S. Global Change Research Program
Katie Reeves, U.S. Global Change Research Program
Darrell Winner, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


Observed Change

Observations from around the world show the widespread effects of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations on Earth’s climate. High temperature extremes and heavy precipitation events are increasing. Glaciers and snow cover are shrinking, and sea ice is retreating. Seas are warming, rising, and becoming more acidic, and marine species are moving to new locations toward cooler waters. Flooding is becoming more frequent along the U.S. coastline. Growing seasons are lengthening, and wildfires are increasing. These and many other changes are clear signs of a warming world (Figure 1.2) (Ch. 2: Climate, Box 2.2; App. 3: Data & Scenarios, see also the USGCRP Indicators and EPA Indicators websites).


Figure 1.2: Indicators of Change

Click on a topic or on the thumbnails below the image to see a relevant indicator.

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Figure 1.2: Long-term observations demonstrate the warming trend in the climate system and the effects of increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations (Ch. 2: Climate, Box 2.2). This figure shows climate-relevant indicators of change based on data collected across the United States. Upward-pointing arrows indicate an increasing trend; downward-pointing arrows indicate a decreasing trend. Bidirectional arrows (e.g., for drought conditions) indicate a lack of a definitive national trend.

Atmosphere (a–c): (a) Annual average temperatures have increased by 1.8°F across the contiguous United States since the beginning of the 20th century; this figure shows observed change for 1986–2016 (relative to 1901–1960 for the contiguous United States and 1925–1960 for Alaska, Hawai‘i, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands). Alaska is warming faster than any other state and has warmed twice as fast as the global average since the mid-20th century (Ch. 2: Climate, KM 5; Ch. 26: Alaska, Background). (b) The season length of heat waves in many U.S. cities has increased by over 40 days since the 1960s. Hatched bars indicate partially complete decadal data. (c) The relative amount of annual rainfall that comes from large, single-day precipitation events has changed over the past century; since 1910, a larger percentage of land area in the contiguous United States receives precipitation in the form of these intense single-day events.

Ice, snow, and water (d–f): (d) Large declines in snowpack in the western United States occurred from 1955 to 2016. (e) While there are a number of ways to measure drought, there is currently no detectable change in long-term U.S. drought statistics using the Palmer Drought Severity Index. (f) Since the early 1980s, the annual minimum sea ice extent (observed in September each year) in the Arctic Ocean has decreased at a rate of 11%–16% per decade (Ch. 2: Climate, KM 7).

Oceans and coasts (g–i): (g) Annual median sea level along the U.S. coast (with land motion removed) has increased by about 9 inches since the early 20th century as oceans have warmed and land ice has melted (Ch. 2: Climate, KM 4). (h) Fish, shellfish, and other marine species along the Northeast coast and in the eastern Bering Sea have, on average, moved northward and to greater depths toward cooler waters since the early 1980s (records start in 1982). (i) Oceans are also currently absorbing more than a quarter of the carbon dioxide emitted to the atmosphere annually by human activities, increasing their acidity (measured by lower pH values; Ch. 2: Climate, KM 3).

Land and ecosystems (j–l): (j) The average length of the growing season has increased across the contiguous United States since the early 20th century, meaning that, on average, the last spring frost occurs earlier and the first fall frost arrives later; this map shows changes in growing season length at the state level from 1895 to 2016. (k) Warmer and drier conditions have contributed to an increase in large forest fires in the western United States and Interior Alaska over the past several decades (CSSR, Ch. 8.3). (l) Degree days are defined as the number of degrees by which the average daily temperature is higher than 65°F (cooling degree days) or lower than 65°F (heating degree days) and are used as a proxy for energy demands for cooling or heating buildings. Changes in temperatures indicate that heating needs have decreased and cooling needs have increased in the contiguous United States over the past century.

Sources: (a) adapted from Vose et al. 2017, (b) EPA, (c–f and h–l) adapted from EPA 2016, (g and center infographic) EPA and NOAA.

Causes of Change

California Drought Affects Critical Mountain Snowpack

California’s recent multiyear drought left Tioga Pass in the Sierra Nevada mountain range …


Scientists have understood the fundamental physics of climate change for almost 200 years. In the 1850s, researchers demonstrated that carbon dioxide and other naturally occurring greenhouse gases in the atmosphere prevent some of the heat radiating from Earth’s surface from escaping to space: this is known as the greenhouse effect. This natural greenhouse effect warms the planet’s surface about 60°F above what it would be otherwise, creating a habitat suitable for life. Since the late 19th century, however, humans have released an increasing amount of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels and, to a lesser extent, deforestation and land-use change. As a result, the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, the largest contributor to human-caused warming, has increased by about 40% over the industrial era. This change has intensified the natural greenhouse effect, driving an increase in global surface temperatures and other widespread changes in Earth’s climate that are unprecedented in the history of modern civilization.

Global climate is also influenced by natural factors that determine how much of the sun’s energy enters and leaves Earth’s atmosphere and by natural climate cycles that affect temperatures and weather patterns in the short term, especially regionally (see Ch. 2: Climate, Box 2.1). However, the unambiguous long-term warming trend in global average temperature over the last century cannot be explained by natural factors alone. Greenhouse gas emissions from human activities are the only factors that can account for the observed warming over the last century; there are no credible alternative human or natural explanations supported by the observational evidence. Without human activities, the influence of natural factors alone would actually have had a slight cooling effect on global climate over the last 50 years (Ch. 2: Climate, KM 1, Figure 2.1).

Future Change

Greenhouse gas emissions from human activities will continue to affect Earth’s climate for decades and even centuries. Humans are adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere at a rate far greater than it is removed by natural processes, creating a long-lived reservoir of the gas in the atmosphere and oceans that is driving the climate to a warmer and warmer state. Some of the other greenhouse gases released by human activities, such as methane, are removed from the atmosphere by natural processes more quickly than carbon dioxide; as a result, efforts to cut emissions of these gases could help reduce the rate of global temperature increases over the next few decades. However, longer-term changes in climate will largely be determined by emissions and atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other longer-lived greenhouse gases (Ch. 2: Climate, KM 2).

Climate models representing our understanding of historical and current climate conditions are often used to project how our world will change under future conditions (see Ch. 2: Climate, Box 2.7). “Climate” is defined as weather conditions over multiple decades, and climate model projections are generally not designed to capture annual or even decadal variation in climate conditions. Instead, projections are typically used to capture long-term changes, such as how the climate system will respond to changes in greenhouse gas levels over this century. Scientists test climate models by comparing them to current observations and historical changes. Confidence in these models is based, in part, on how well they reproduce these observed changes. Climate models have proven remarkably accurate in simulating the climate change we have experienced to date, particularly in the past 60 years or so when we have greater confidence in observations (see CSSR, Ch. 4.3.1). The observed signals of a changing climate continue to become stronger and clearer over time, giving scientists increased confidence in their findings even since the Third National Climate Assessment was released in 2014.

Today, the largest uncertainty in projecting future climate conditions is the level of greenhouse gas emissions going forward. Future global greenhouse gas emissions levels and resulting impacts depend on economic, political, and demographic factors that can be difficult to predict with confidence far into the future. Like previous climate assessments, NCA4 relies on a suite of possible scenarios to evaluate the implications of different climate outcomes and associated impacts throughout the 21st century. These “Representative Concentration Pathways” (RCPs) capture a range of potential greenhouse gas emissions pathways and associated atmospheric concentration levels through 2100.

RCPs drive climate model projections for temperature, precipitation, sea level, and other variables under futures that have either lower or higher greenhouse gas emissions. RCPs are numbered according to changes in radiative forcing by 2100 relative to preindustrial conditions: +2.6, +4.5, +6.0, or +8.5 watts per square meter (W/m2). Each RCP leads to a different level of projected global temperature change; higher numbers indicate greater projected temperature change and associated impacts. The higher scenario (RCP8.5) represents a future where annual greenhouse gas emissions increase significantly throughout the 21st century before leveling off by 2100, whereas the other RCPs represent more rapid and substantial mitigation by mid-century, with greater reductions thereafter. Current trends in annual greenhouse gas emissions, globally, are consistent with RCP8.5.

Of the two RCPs predominantly referenced throughout this report, the lower scenario (RCP4.5) envisions about 85% lower greenhouse gas emissions than the higher scenario (RCP8.5) by the end of the 21st century (see Ch. 2: Climate, Figure 2.2). In some cases, throughout this report, a very low scenario (RCP2.6) that represents more immediate, substantial, and sustained emissions reductions is considered. Each RCP could be consistent with a range of underlying socioeconomic conditions or policy choices. See the Scenario Products section of Appendix 3 in this report, as well as CSSR Chapters 4.2.1 and 10.2.1 for more detail.

The effects of different future greenhouse gas emissions levels on global climate become most evident around 2050, when temperature (Figure 1.3) (Ch. 2: Climate, Figure 2.2), precipitation, and sea level rise (Figure 1.4) (Ch. 2: Climate, Figure 2.3) projections based on each scenario begin to diverge significantly. With substantial and sustained reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (e.g., consistent with the very low scenario [RCP2.6]), the increase in global annual average temperature relative to preindustrial times could be limited to less than 3.6°F (2°C) (Ch. 2: Climate, Box 2.4; CSSR, Ch. 4.2.1). Without significant greenhouse gas mitigation, the increase in global annual average temperature could reach 9°F or more by the end of this century (Ch. 2: Climate, KM 2). For some aspects of Earth’s climate system that take longer to respond to changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, such as global sea level, some degree of long-term change will be locked in for centuries to come, regardless of the future scenario (see CSSR, Ch. 12.5.3). Early greenhouse gas emissions mitigation can reduce climate impacts in the nearer term (such as reducing the loss of arctic sea ice and the effects on species that use it) and in the longer term by avoiding critical thresholds (such as marine ice sheet instability and the resulting consequences for global sea level and coastal development; Ch. 29: Mitigation, Timing and Magnitude of Action).


Figure 1.3: Projected Changes in U.S. Annual Average Temperatures

Projected Changes in U.S. Annual Average Temperatures
Figure 1.3: Annual average temperatures across the United States are projected to increase over this century, with greater changes at higher latitudes as compared to lower latitudes, and under a higher scenario (RCP8.5; right) than under a lower one (RCP4.5; left). This figure shows projected differences in annual average temperatures for mid-century (2036–2065; top) and end of century (2071–2100; bottom) relative to the near present (1986–2015). From Figure 2.4, Ch. 2: Climate (Source: adapted from Vose et al. 2017).


Annual average temperatures in the United States are projected to continue to increase in the coming decades. Regardless of future scenario, additional increases in temperatures across the contiguous United States of at least 2.3°F relative to 1986–2015 are expected by the middle of this century. As a result, recent record-setting hot years are expected to become common in the near future. By late this century, increases of 2.3°–6.7°F are expected under a lower scenario (RCP4.5) and 5.4°–11.0°F under a higher scenario (RCP8.5) relative to 1986–2015 (Figure 1.3) (Ch. 2: Climate, KM 5, Figure 2.4). Alaska has warmed twice as fast as the global average since the mid-20th century; this trend is expected to continue (Ch. 26: Alaska, Background).


Figure 1.4: Projected Relative Sea Level Change in the United States by 2100

Projected Relative Sea Level Change in the United States by 2100
Figure 1.4: The maps show projections of change in relative sea level along the U.S. coast by 2100 (as compared to 2000) under the lower (RCP4.5) and higher (RCP8.5) scenarios (see CSSR, Ch. 12.5). Globally, sea levels will continue to rise from thermal expansion of the ocean and melting of land-based ice masses (such as Greenland, Antarctica, and mountain glaciers). Regionally, however, the amount of sea level rise will not be the same everywhere. Where land is sinking (as along the Gulf of Mexico coastline), relative sea level rise will be higher, and where land is rising (as in parts of Alaska), relative sea level rise will be lower. Changes in ocean circulation (such as the Gulf Stream) and gravity effects due to ice melt will also alter the heights of the ocean regionally. Sea levels are expected to continue to rise along almost all U.S. coastlines, and by 2100, under the higher scenario, coastal flood heights that today cause major damages to infrastructure would become common during high tides nationwide (Ch. 8: Coastal; Scenario Products section in Appendix 3). Source: adapted from CSSR, Figure 12.4.


High temperature extremes, heavy precipitation events, high tide flooding events along the U.S. coastline, ocean acidification and warming, and forest fires in the western United States and Alaska are all projected to continue to increase, while land and sea ice cover, snowpack, and surface soil moisture are expected to continue to decline in the coming decades. These and other changes are expected to increasingly impact water resources, air quality, human health, agriculture, natural ecosystems, energy and transportation infrastructure, and many other natural and human systems that support communities across the country. The severity of these projected impacts, and the risks they present to society, is greater under futures with higher greenhouse gas emissions, especially if limited or no adaptation occurs (Ch. 29: Mitigation, KM 2).

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