Fourth National Climate Assessment

NCA4 Web Site

Interactions Among Sectors

The sectors and systems exposed to climate (for example, energy, water, and agriculture) interact with and depend on one another and other systems less directly exposed to climate (such as the financial sector). In addition, these interacting systems are not only exposed to climate-related stressors such as floods, droughts, and heat waves, they are also subject to a range of non-climate factors, from population movements to economic fluctuations to urban expansion. These interactions can lead to complex behaviors and outcomes that are difficult to predict. It is not possible to fully understand the implications of climate change on the United States without considering the interactions among sectors and their consequences.